Why was the Hexamillion wall incapable of preventing invasion?

Why was the Hexamillion wall incapable of preventing invasion?


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The Hexamillion wall was created to fortify the only land route into the Peloponnese peninsula ~ but throughout it's history (450-1460 AD) it failed to prevent multiple invasions, acting only as a deterrent.

It has been noted that a fortification of the Isthmus was of no utility without control of the ocean.

Was it a lack of control of the surrounding ocean that prevented the wall from being successful during it's history? Or perhaps the construction of the wall itself that allowed it to be easily breached? Maybe a series of ill-led, under strength defenders?


Unlike a city wall, that has people always around it to man and guard it, a free standing border wall tends to get stripped of manpower whenever the attention of the state building it falters. An unmanned wall isn't hard to get around, or over.

I've even read that some believe the main task of these border fences is less to hold invaders out, than to keep raiders in. A raiding party can cross over easily enough alone, but when laden with loot and prisoners, the wall crossing back will take long enough that the mobile security force will catch them in the act and be able to capture the raiding force, or at least make them abandon their gains.


Why was the Hexamillion wall incapable of preventing invasion? - History

Military strategists and pundits alike often refer to warfare in terms of three domains — namely land, sea, and air. In each of these venues, armed combatants struggle to defeat their adversaries and open a path to the political objectives that drive a conflict. However, a fourth domain is often overlooked in discussions of warfare, one that has been utilized as a means of covert approach toward enemy forces for thousands of years, and has recently been utilized to great asymmetric effect against some of the most powerful conventional forces on earth. This forgotten domain is the use of underground tunneling, as a means to create a subterranean axis of advance. While it might not share the glamor of the other domains, it has often been used to decisive effect throughout the recorded history of human conflict.

Traditionally, tunnels have mostly been used as a means to approach and threaten fortified positions. An ancient besieging force might have begun tunneling operations in the hopes of bypassing a fortification’s walls, and launching a direct attack upon the interior, achieving surprise by the sudden emergence of warriors in an area previously considered immune from attack. More common was the effort to open a space under protective walls or towers, a process called “sapping.” The tunnel diggers shored up the foundations of the target area with dry wood planks until a prearranged time, at which the wood was ignited, causing a collapse of the newly-unsupported wall. The resulting breach was then stormed by infantry, who hoped to pour through the opening and overwhelm the defenders before the gap could be plugged.

Of course, ancient defenders knew the dangers of tunnel and sapping operations, and they devised means to detect any enemy tunneling activity. One method was to place drums at key points along the defensive line, and monitor them constantly for the telltale vibrations produced by digging through the earth. Others used bowls of water set along the tops of walls, which also responded to underground disturbances. These methods allowed a crude form of triangulation, by which the defenders could chart the progress of the approaching tunnels. Rather than passively await the enemy’s maneuvers, they could then begin a countermine, attempting to intersect the attackers’ tunnel. A brutal hand-to-hand fight in the darkness followed, with the desperate defenders hoping to kill the enemy miners and collapse their tunnels before they put the fortifications at risk. Sometimes, defenders attempted to flood attacking tunnels, or fill them with noxious smoke to render them uninhabitable.

Clear records of tunneling operations extend back more than 4,000 years. Assyrian carvings show engineering units belonging to Sargon of Akkad (reigned 2334-2279 BCE) undermining the walls of enemy cities. Although Homer’s Iliad contains no mention of such activities, archaeological evidence from excavations at Troy show a number of underground passages crossing beneath the city’s walls, which might have been part of a siege. The Romans often used tunneling operations in their conquests, and their repute as engineers was so great that even the sight of freshly-dug earth that might indicate the presence of tunneling was enough to provoke surrenders. Defenders could not take the chance of a sack of their city if the Romans were forced to take it by storm. For their part, the Romans also proved adept at countermining operations. At the siege of Dura in C.E. 256, invading Persian tunnels threatened the walls and towers guarding the settlement. Roman defenders managed to intercept several Persian tunnels and collapse them, while also digging tunnels to attack a Persian siege ramp from below.

The influence of tunnel operations, and the threat of their success, can be seen in the evolution of fortification designs. Castles with high curtain walls required ditches around the walls as a means to force enemy diggers to tunnel through solid bedrock. This not only proved far harder to penetrate, but it also gave off a much louder sound for easier detection and counterattack. If the ditch could be flooded, the effect was even better, as water from the moat might seep into any tunneling operation and render it ineffective. No fortification could be truly immunized from tunneling operations, making the tactic a very attractive, although time-consuming, approach to siegecraft. Nations with extensive mining industries held a significant advantage in this type of warfare. In particular, English and German miners worked to elevate the creation of sapper tunnels into an art form, and often joined specialized mercenary engineering companies.

The introduction of gunpowder to European militaries had two significant effects upon tunnel warfare. First, it created a viable alternative means to quickly end a siege via the collapse of fortifications, as masonry walls could not withstand the power of direct artillery fire for very long. Of course, attackers still needed to bring their artillery within range of the walls, where defenders typically mounted large guns that could return fire. The process of working artillery into position to fire upon the walls soon called for a substantial amount of digging and maneuvering, which might be as slow and costly as the process of mining under the walls. The second major effect of gunpowder to this style of warfare was to increase the destructive power of sapper tunnels. Rather than burning the timber placed to prop up walls, a besieger could instead excavate a chamber under the wall and fill it full of powder. The explosion from this method could blow apart enormous sections of the enemy wall, although it often had the side effect of collapsing the tunnel at the same time.

Gunpowder spelled the end of the massive, imposing castle, but it did not convey a permanent advantage to the attacker. Soon, military engineers began to construct fortifications that utilized geometric calculations to allow defenders to cover every possible approach. Earthworks served to absorb the impact of enemy shot and shells, and could be built to prevent direct fire upon the primary defenses. The enormous fortification projects required the full resources of a nation-state, but also rendered wars of national conquest too costly to undertake. Limited wars, with the object of taking a single fortified position, might require multiple campaign seasons to be completed, unless besiegers could devise a way to bypass the new defenses. Tunneling again came to the forefront of the engineer’s craft. Yet, the architects of massive fortifications did not neglect the possibility of a subterranean advance, in anticipation of such tactics, they included enormous networks of countermines well beyond their defensive perimeters. Such tunnels served as storerooms during peacetime, but were garrisoned with troops instructed to listen for the sounds of tunneling during times of war. Lest an enemy seek to break into the existing tunnel system and gain access to the fort, the tunnels were rigged with charges for easy collapse, traps for the unwary, and a labyrinthine design known only to the defenders.

At the turn of the nineteenth century, the Revolutionary armies of France, commanded and inspired by Napoleon Bonaparte, restored operational mobility to the battlefield as they swept across Europe. While Napoleon proved almost unstoppable on the battlefield, he had neither the patience nor the aptitude for conducting sieges. He much preferred to simply bypass fortified positions and threaten enemy capitals. For a short period, tunneling became a very uncommon aspect of warfare. By mid-century, though, it was prominent once more, with tunnels dug to attack Sebastopol in Crimea, and a major tunneling attempt to break the siege lines at Petersburg during the American Civil War. In both attempts, the institutional memory of how to create an effective sapper mine and exploit it failed, and neither proved very effective.

Tunnel warfare was never the exclusive province of western warfare, although the industrial economies of Europe made it a natural capability. Chinese military theorists dating back to Sun Tzu discussed tunnel warfare as a means of surprising and overwhelming an enemy who felt secure behind strong defenses. Other Asian military forces also practiced the art of military tunneling, particularly the Japanese, who besieged Russian-held Port Arthur in 1904. When attempts to storm the defenses failed, and artillery proved incapable of forcing the Russians to surrender, Japanese engineers began work on the largest military tunnel system to date. Hundreds of separate tunnels were driven toward the defenders, who recognized the danger and began searching for means to block or collapse them before they became a mortal threat. In December, several different mines were exploded, breaching the remaining defenses and triggering the surrender of the Russian defenders.

The use of mines inside tunnels as a mechanism to breach enemy trench lines continued as a means to end the stalemate of the Western Front of World War I. British, French, and German diggers all competed to drive tunnels past the enemy lines, either to create a breach or to infiltrate forces into the rear areas. The region around the Ypres salient, in particular, was festooned with hundreds of tunnels. Each side developed special equipment and techniques to enhance their chances of extending a mine, or of intercepting and destroying the enemy’s attempts. When countermines broke into adversaries’ tunnels, the result was a bloody melee deep below the surface. Given the need to seek out the enemy by sound, tunnel fighters used firearms and explosives only as a desperate last measure. Knives, bayonets, and mining tools were far more common weapons, although occasionally poison gas was used to render the tunnel unusable.

Tunnel warfare reached its logical extreme as a defensive system during the interwar period. In particular, the French military, devastated by the experience of the First World War, sought to design an impregnable fortification system, dubbed the Maginot Line, to prevent another massive German invasion. They constructed a chain of enormous forts along the German frontier and connected them by subway tunnels. Each position maintained interlocking fields of fire with its neighbors. All maintained a positive air pressure, preventing attack via poison gas. Virtually the entire position was rendered immune to aerial attack, and enemy field artillery stood no chance of reducing the positions. Tunnels under the network enabled an infantry counterattack at almost any point, and should an attacker manage to penetrate the tunnel system, it could quickly be collapsed via built-in demolition charges, meaning that even if one position fell, the line remained intact. To a certain extent, the plan worked—Germany did not even attempt an attack against the Maginot Line, and instead devised its entire operational plan to move through Belgium and bypass the forts. This guaranteed British intervention, but it also turned the Maginot Line into an enormous static position, completely incapable of preventing the conquest of France. For the remainder of the war in Europe, front lines remained fluid, preventing the need for sapper mines during the war against Germany.

In the Pacific, the Japanese strategy called for extending a defensive perimeter into the Pacific, building airfields to threaten any American naval counterattacks, and inflicting more casualties than the United States was willing to absorb while negotiating an armistice. One key mechanism of inflicting fatalities was through digging field fortifications on every island the Japanese occupied. Positions without airfields might be safely bypassed, but those with even a single runway presented too much danger to convoys and had to be attacked in a succession of bloody invasions. The longer Japanese defenders had to prepare before facing an amphibious assault, the more they dug into the earth. The tunnels offered protection from observation and aerial attack, and also enabled a significant number of tactical surprises as Japanese troops moved unseen below the islands. By the time the United States Marines attacked Iwo Jima in February of 1945, Japanese defenders had created a massive network of tunnels throughout the tiny volcanic island. The result was a bloodbath, with 6,821 Americans killed and a further 19,217 wounded. An operation scheduled to last three days stretched out to five, and became the bloodiest battle in USMC history. Had such a defensive scheme been followed during an invasion of the Japanese home islands, Allied casualties might have numbered in the millions.

One major U.S. military experience with the challenges of tunnel warfare came during the Vietnam War. Over decades of fighting first the French and later the U.S.-backed South Vietnamese government, Viet Cong guerrillas constructed an enormous tunnel network, particularly in the Cu Chi province near Saigon. This network offered shelter against overwhelming American airpower, and facilitated a hit-and-run style of warfare that continually frustrated American commanders. Desperate to come to grips with the enemy, the U.S. Army surrounded a region nicknamed the Iron Triangle in early 1967 and moved in with overwhelming force. The three week effort, dubbed Operations Cedar Falls, eventually netted 750 enemy killed and 600 weapons captured. Having seized the terrain, the U.S. military then sent in heavy equipment to raze the jungle cover and destroy the tunnels. After the demolition crews craped the earth bare and collapsed the tunnels, they abandoned the region, which was soon once again heavily overgrown and riddled with tunnels.

Certain troops, called “tunnel rats,” specialized in penetrating and searching the Viet Cong tunnels. They disappeared for hours, relying upon their senses of smell and hearing for any warning that an enemy might be near. Armed with a long knife, a handgun, and a flashlight, they sought to nullify the massive advantage conveyed by the tunnels. Some men managed to conduct dozens of incursions, becoming comfortable crawling below ground, while others found they had unexpected phobias and could not continue their penetrations. When a tunnel rat announced he could no longer perform the mission, he was not questioned or cajoled to return below. He was simply welcomed back into the ranks of men who remained on the surface.

American troops attacking Al Qaeda positions and pursuing Osama bin Laden in 2002 discovered a massive tunnel complex connecting the natural Tora Bora cave formations in Afghanistan. These tunnels boasted hospital facilities, massive storerooms, sophisticated electronic communications gear, and a climate control system capable of filtering chemical contaminants. The effort to capture and destroy the tunnels was a tactical success but a strategic failure, as most of the Al Qaeda fighters and all of the senior leaders escaped while a handful held off coalition attackers. Very little useful intelligence was captured when the coalition troops finally broke through, and much like the effort against the Cu Chi complex near Saigon, they contented themselves to collapse and seal off portions of the tunnels before abandoning the area. Unsurprisingly, enemy forces quickly reoccupied much of the region.

Tunnel warfare has recently come to the attention of western militaries due to its usage in the recurrent fighting between Israel and Hamas in Gaza. Hamas, founded in 1987, has always utilized tunnels as an efficient means of smuggling and infiltration, and Israel has largely tolerated the tunnels’ existence because it seemed too costly to destroy them. After Hamas seized power as the formal government in Gaza, Israel enacted a blockade of items deemed contraband in Gaza, including construction materials likely to support tunnel construction. In particular, the importation of concrete was tightly controlled, a decision that provoked substantial derision in the international community. Regardless of such condemnation, Israel retained the restrictions as a key security measure. Tunnels also crossed the border into Egypt, where a 2011 revolution brought Mohamed Morsi to power. Morsi’s administration proved very sympathetic to Hamas, but was overthrown by the military in 2013. General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi ordered military engineers to flood the tunnels with raw sewage, making them completely unusable without a shot being fired.

When a series of incidents triggered a renewed Israeli invasion of Gaza in 2014, one of the key objectives soon became the destruction or severe degradation of the tunnels under Gaza, particularly those crossing into Israel. The tunnels proved far larger, deeper, and longer than expected, and their stable construction made them all but impervious to airstrikes. Thus, any effort to collapse the tunnels required Israeli ground troops to enter them and place detonation charges inside. Naturally, Hamas resisted such advances using every means available, including traps, ambushes, and efforts to control the narrative of the fighting in the world press. Although the tactical moves inflicted some casualties upon the Israel Defence Force (IDF) troops, the propaganda campaign failed. Discoveries of missile caches used to attack Israeli civilians, as well as the capture of Hamas commandos armed with restraints and sedatives, who admitted to a plan to kidnap civilian hostages, massively undermined the campaign. After seven weeks, the two sides agreed to a cease-fire, although Israel continues both the blockade and the effort to collapse existing tunnels.

If irregular warfare remains common in the next few decades, as it has been for many recent conflicts, tunnels are likely to play an increasingly important role. Dominant conventional powers, most notably the United States, have a massive informational advantage provided by aerial surveillance. One way to offset some of the effects of this information dominance is to simply conceal activities, particularly underground. Tunnels can create a defensive nightmare for attackers, and negate many of the advantages held by a technologically superior conventional force. The process of clearing and destroying a tunnel network is expensive, time-consuming, and likely to inflict many more casualties than an engagement above ground. Tunnels also offer a dual-usage in peacetime, in that they provide infiltration and smuggling routes. If the entrances and layout of the tunnels can be kept secret, their existence creates a major security threat.

Many of the most effective countermeasures against tunnels have been used for centuries. If a specific perimeter needs to be defended against tunneling (such as the Gaza border), it is theoretically possible to create a deep ditch that would force tunnelers to dig through solid bedrock to reach their goals. Backed up by acoustic and seismic sensors, this passive defense can detect many of the tunneling efforts. Maintaining effective surveillance over areas suspected to have active tunnel-digging can also help, by checking for signs of soil being deposited in large quantities. Blockades and embargoes can limit the importation of heavy tunneling equipment. Ground penetrating radar has a limited ability to detect underground excavations. In the end, though, tunneling has been used for the simple reason that it works, and as such, it is unlikely to go away in the near future. It is not usually the first choice of methods, due to the time and resource requirements, but it tends to be a very effective, if slow, approach to military operations.

For further reading:

Barrie, Alexander. War Underground. London: F. Muller, 1962.

Barton, Peter Peter Doyle and John Vandewalle. Beneath Flanders Fields: The Tunnellers’ War, 1914-1918. Staplehurst, Kent, United Kingdom: Spellmount, 2004.

Bradbury, Jim. The Medieval Siege. Rochester, NY: The Boydell Press, 1992.

Campbell, Duncan B. Besieged: Siege Warfare in the Ancient World. Oxford: Osprey, 2006.

Duffy, Christopher. The Fortress in the Age of Vauban and Frederick the Great, 1660-1789. London: Routledge, 1985.

Duffy, Christopher. The Fortress in the Early Modern World, 1494-1660. London: Routledge, 1979.

Ebert, James R. A Life in a Year: The American Infantryman in Vietnam, 1965-1972. Novato, CA: Presidio, 1993.

Gravett, Christopher. Medieval Siege Warfare. London: Osprey, 1990.

Hogg, Ian V. The History of Fortification. New York: St. Martin’s, 1981.

Mangold, Tom and John Penycate. The Tunnels of Cu Chi: The Untold Story of Vietnam. New York: Random House, 1985.

Norris, John. Medieval Siege Warfare. Stroud: Tempus, 2007.

Rogers, Bernard William. Cedar Falls-Junction City: A Turning Point. Washington, DC: Department of the Army, 2004.

Stanton, Shelby L. The Rise and Fall of an American Army: U.S. Ground Forces in Vietnam, 1965-1973. Novato, CA: Presidio, 1985.

Paul J. Springer, a Senior Fellow in the FPRI Program on National Security, is a Professor of Comparative Military History at the Air Command and Staff College, located at Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama.


Why Do Animal Cells Not Have a Cell Wall?

Animal cells do not have cell walls because they do not need them. Cell walls, which are found in plant cells, maintain cell shape, almost as if each cell has its own exoskeleton. This rigidity allows plants to stand upright without the need for bones or musculature.

It is generally an advantage for plants to stand upright and grow as tall as possible. Plants need sunlight, so growing taller than neighboring plants make it more likely that the plant will survive and successfully reproduce. For animals, height may be an advantage sometimes as well, but most animals have skeletons and musculature. They do not need the rigid network that cell walls provide to stand upright.

Furthermore, most animals can move, and this capability is an enormous advantage when it comes to feeding, finding a mate and escaping from predators. If animals had cell walls in the same way plants do, they would be incapable of movement. Animals that do not move, such as coral and sea sponges, tend to grow in communal groups and develop structures that are very plant-like.

Animals and plants evolved differently, each according to different sets of needs. For animals, mobility was a greater advantage. Having cells without the rigidity of cell walls meant greater flexibility and motility.


Argentine Miltary Junta&aposs Failed Strategies

The Falkland Islands war provides an illuminating examination into the Argentine military junta’s failed strategic aims entering the war against Great Britain.

The Junta’s series of misperceptions and miscalculations found its roots in the ruin of their strategy formulation.

The Argentine ruling military junta failed to develop an effective strategy leading up to the start of the Falklands Islands War in 1982 due to a failed understanding of the strategic environment imbalance of ends, ways, and means that created unacceptable risk and missing a decision-making leadership structure necessary to support strategy development.


The Rarely Noticed Wire Running Through Our Nation’s Cities: The Eruv as a Symbol of Jewish Settler Psychology, Invasion, and Social Control

Many readers may not appreciate that there is literally a Jewish religious metal wire, running overhead in many of our nation’s cities. It is strung up like a telephone line or electric wire and can run for miles in large cities like New York. Seen from overhead by drone cameras, for example, it looks like a wire used in a livestock fencing system. It is constantly overseen, inspected, serviced, protected, and maintained by a secret organized team in each city. It is regulated by city ordinance and subsidized by taxpayers. The wires are not only in New York, but in St. Louis, Atlanta, Baltimore, Chicago, Dallas, and dozens of other cities across the United States.

Business Insider described it thus: “Unbeknown to most, there are transparent wires that wrap around over 200 cities in North America — including Manhattan — to mark a religious boundary. And every week, there is a “secret operation” to check and repair the wire in time for the weekend.”

A part of the overhead Eruv wire, and a maintenance truck, extending across public streets in New York City. “It’s like social engineering,” said Arnold Sheiffer, founder of the opposition group Jewish People for the Betterment of Westhampton Beach. “We [the Jewish people] fought like hell to get out of the ghetto and now they want to create that again.”

The Shabbat wire encasing Manhattan, turning it into a effective private Jewish home

Every Thursday and Friday morning, Rabbi Moshe Tauber leaves his home in Rockland County, New York, at about 3:30 a.m. He arrives in Manhattan an hour later and drives the 20-mile length of a nearly invisible series of wires that surrounds most of the borough. He starts at 126th Street in Harlem and drives down, hugging the Hudson River most of the way, to Battery Park and back up along the East River, marking in a small notebook where he notices breaks in the line. Known as an eruv, the wire is a symbolic boundary that allows observant Jews to carry out a range of ordinary activities otherwise forbidden on the Shabbat.

Any necessary repairs must be finished before sundown on Friday, when Shabbat begins. The day of rest then lasts until the following day when there’s no more red in the western sky. Throughout that time, observant Jews are prohibited from performing many basic activities, and the observance of this law has been updated over time to reflect current technologies, such as cars, electricity, and keys. “Carrying from one domain to another,” or moving objects between public and private areas, for example, is forbidden. Eruvin (the plural of eruv) transcend this restrictive rule by serving as a symbolic border that links together many private spaces in the community, which in turn permits people to ferry around keys, children, and canes, or push wheelchairs and strollers.

But a single break in any part of the line voids that symbolic space. According to the 100 pages devoted to eruvin in the ancient Talmud, the boundary is only effective when the entire line is intact. And there are plenty of ways these breaks can happen. Sometimes it’s the elements, but more often construction is responsible. The wires, attached to telephone and light poles, can be severed or simply pushed down (the eruv must remain at the top of the pole) to make room for maintenance on other lines. And this is where Tauber comes in. “If they’re lousy, they’ll just cut the lines and let it go,” he says. He’s been doing this carefully orchestrated monitoring since 2000. The repairs are “a secret operation,” chairman of the Manhattan Eruv Committee Rabbi Adam Mintz told the New York Post in 2015. That’s by design.

A fence being used as an eruv boundary in Israel

A contractor attaches a Shabbat wire in mid-town Manhattan

The wire surrounding New York City Manhattan Island, is 18 miles long and encircles the entire city from Harlem to the north, extending east-west, down both sides of Manhattan, all the way down to Battery Park, Wall Street and the former area of the World Trade Center:

It’s hard to imagine that anything literally hanging from utility poles across Manhattan could be considered “hidden,” but throughout the borough, about 18 miles of translucent wire stretches around the skyline, and most people have likely never noticed. It’s called an eruv (plural eruvin), and its existence is thanks to the Jewish Sabbath.

On the Sabbath, which is viewed as a day of rest, observant Jewish people aren’t allowed to carry anything—books, groceries, even children—in public places (doing so is considered “work”). The eruv encircles much of Manhattan, acting as a symbolic boundary that turns the very public streets of the city into a private space, much like one’s own home. This allows people to freely communicate and socialize on the Sabbath—and carry whatever they please—without having to worry about breaking Jewish law.

The nature of cultural aesthetics is obviously invoked when a special interest group feels that it is necessary to impose its religious belief system on the rest of a local, heterogenous society, with a secret worship totem that literally corrals everyone into a converted private home. But it is much more than this: in what ways is the Eruvin system a larger symbol of Jewish oppression, invasion, usurpation, imposition and appropriation of public and private space? Can it be compared to the Kosher food industry? Is the Eruvin a strong symbol of Jewish conceit that is also seen in the ways the country of Israel is managed? Is it really Palestine, for example, that seeks to “wipe Israel off the map,” or is it perhaps Israel that seeks to imprison Palestine and Palestinians in its larger Pan-Israel geopolitical compound, of which the Eruvin apparatus is its psychological manifestation?

Israeli West Bank barrier – North of Meitar, near the southwest corner of the West Bank

Moreover, how do the ironic similarities of the Eruvin wire fencing apparatus with concentration camp fencing construction, perhaps reflect a deep cultural and group psychological disorder—a disturbance of rational thought, and a manifestation of mass psychosis? How do the confines of Jewish ghettos, of Israel itself as an effective barbed wire and walled ghetto and prison, find some similarities in the primitive superstition and obsession of the Eruvin wire? In what ways is this wire also manifest digitally in Israel’s “Green Pass” identity tracking system? Or in American society surrounded with Jewish media broadcasting a kind of constant loudspeaker of their interests, ambitions, and quest for cultural dominance by corralling its local host society with an array of “wires?” Is the Covid bio-security complex also not largely a Jewish construct that embodies the same sociopathy for control, herding, and domination accomplished deceptively through a mix of secrecies?

What is it about Jewish culture and social psychology that it would install a secret overhead wire around an entire U.S. city, and keep its presence generally out of public awareness through secrecy or deception? Does this wire system tap into precisely the same cultural coding and motivation as its efforts to invade Gaza, de-populate Syria, destabilize the Sudan, Egypt, Lebanon, and to geopolitically encircle Iran through its bordered regions?

Indeed, as former Pentagon Controller Rabbi Dov Zakheim explained, surrounding Iran is precisely the goal of the US-Israel GWOT (Global War on Terror). While the initial targets of U.S. military “retaliation” in the Middle East were Iraq, then Afghanistan, then Syria, “ISIS” and even the Sudan, as Zakheim somewhat cleverly explained in a January 2007 Financial Times article, “Why America Should Operate From Iraq’s Borders,” the joint forces strategy that he was at the time tasked with designing and operationalizing as a consultant to the Pentagon, was based on a careful and systematic encirclement of Iran, and the domination of the larger Middle East (with Israel as a continually reinforced military and strategic platform):

Rabbi Dov Zakheim, former Pentagon Controller during 9-11, and champion of Greater Israel plan that encircles Iran with an effective military version of the Eruvin system

Thus the US objective should be framed in terms of the wider region: stopping Iraq from launching attacks against its neighbours, preventing any invasion by Turkey in the north and barring Iranian domination in the south. Then the US must reposition its forces to foster regional stability and minimise casualties. Up to two brigades should be devoted to Kurdistan and a roughly equal number to the far west of Anbar province. The forces in Kurdistan would help forestall a Kurdish declaration of independence that would prompt a Turkish invasion. The troops in western Iraq would help prevent both terrorist infiltration into Jordan and serious incursions from Syria. They would also indicate to Damascus that it should not misinterpret a readiness to talk as a concession. The Pentagon should also move a division-sized force to the south, with a significant presence on the border with Iran. Tehran must understand that the US will not tolerate its domination of Iraq’s south. Nor, as with Syria, would Washington’s willingness to talk mean a readiness to appease. Finally, US allies must be pressed to take the lead in establishing a network of provincial reconstruction teams similar to those that have met with some success in Afghanistan. By operating from Iraq’s borders American forces would be well placed to prevent the establishment of terrorist training camps anywhere in the region. In addition, it ensures that US forces have a realisable mission. They may be unable to bring stability to all of Iraq, but they can certainly bring a degree of stability to the region. The US can thus reassert its leading role in [the] Middle East.

The barrier and wires between Abu Dis and East Jerusalem. Bottom: Route 443 near Giv’at Ze’ev Junction, with pyramid-shaped stacks of barbed wire forming a section of the Israeli West Bank barrier

Zakheim’s rather coy if mendacious vision has been precisely that followed by the U.S. over the past three presidential administrations: the installation of a geopolitical Eruvin wire around the entire Middle East, and ultimately around Iran (known as the Middle East Transformation Plan, the Greater Israel, Pan-Israel or Oded Yinon plan).

The Covid vaccine program, largely operationalized by the C.D.C., is run by Biden-appointed Harvard MD and progressive Left Jewess, Rochelle Wolensky. It is noteworthy the extent of her alignment with Israel’s radical agenda in public biosecurity, vaccination passports, and mass tracing, tracking and surveillance: the medical “Eruvin” that is the equivalent of a biological and digital “wire” (wireless) around society.

CDC head Wolensky: “I’m motivated by the Jewish teachings of tikkun olam. We must vaccinate hundreds of millions of people. We must get the public to wear a mask, practice social distancing, and avoid crowds and poorly-ventilated areas. We must improve our public health system to detect threats.”

“She may be at the CDC now, but we like to say she got her start at Camp Yavneh.” said Bil Zarch, executive director of Camp Yavneh, a Jewish overnight camp in New Hampshire where for many summers Walensky and her physician husband spent a week volunteering as camp doctors.

“She is someone who lives the essence of Judaism,” said Harvard Medical School’s Freedberg. “I’ve been watching her for 30 years,” he continued. “She views the mitzvah of Tikkun Olam as a guiding light in her career. This – her work at CDC – is that on a grand scale.”

Wolensky is also assisted by the Biden-appointed coordinator of COVID-19 Response, and Counselor to the President, Jeff Zients, an economist who owns a chain of Jewish delis in Washington, D.C., and by “Doctor Death, ” Covid advisor Dr. Ezekiel Emanuel.

It is hard not to see the secret Eruvin system of wires strung up and obsessively maintained across many of America’s key population centers, as a symbol of Jewish-Zionist interests that are fixed in the concepts of entrapment, encirclement, confinement, control, and most of all, the constant imposition of a highly organized, special-interest world philosophy that feeds off of the “domestication” and “farming” of other humans, their cultures, their wealth, and their independence. In this regard especially, it is a central strategic Jewish imperative to circumscribe and suppress threats to their control, by systematically imposing a panoply of biological, digital, conceptual, mimetic, and economic “viruses” into their host societies, and then acting as an expert authority in the institutional intermediation between these risks, and a frightened public: hence the critical requirement for institutional saturation and control across key state and other organizations that act as conduits for the exercise of top-down control by “experts,” and ultimately as its organizing structure for its monetization: they include the CDC, much of the university complex, especially in administration, law and medicine, the World Bank, Federal Reserve governance, key Wall Street institutions including exchanges, the State Department, the White House chief of staff, several Silicon Valley firms (particularly those involved in social media and advertising), parts of the pharmaceutical and raw drug complex, and the media. Together, these may be seen to represent the larger Jewish Eruvim that is simultaneously poisoning and strangling large parts of previously functional Western societies.

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A tinfoil cap will protect you against the Jewish juju wire.

Cutting it down at sunset every Friday is much more effective.

You don’t need to cut the whole thing down. Just snipping it at one place is enough to break the magic circuit and stop the Holy Shekhinah Ectoplasm from circulating.

No protection, tinfoil cap or otherwise, is needed by non-Jews against the “Jewish juju wire.” It’s sole significance is as an indication of Jewish group mentality. A tinfoil cap will certainly not protect against the supremacist super-mafia behavior which issues from that mentality.

The final paragraph may be the most concentrated description of the Jewish modus operandi I have ever read.

Agreed.
V.S. Solovyev is the gold standard for this type of journalism.

Thank you Mr Solovyev for a great exposé of the eruv shystem, which is indeed “a larger symbol of Jewish oppression, invasion, usurpation, imposition and appropriation of public and private space.”
I would add one other aspect, namely, it is also a symbol of the unique relationship Jews have with their deity.
They profess to fear and adore the all-powerful, all-knowing Yahweh to the point of not allowing its name to be uttered, and even in English (not exactly the Talmud idiom) they write it as “g-d.”
On the other hand, clearly they must view their “g-d” as less than smart since it can be so easily fooled by the all-smart Jews just by stringing a wire on poles. Arrogance in all their dealings with the Goyim cannot surprise in a tribe that considers itself smart enough to outwit their own “g-d” when convenient.

They bring down GOD to their own petty and belittling level. It is Omnipotent.

Yahweh is a bloodthirsty, mean, tribal oriental god, who bears little relation to the God of the New Testament (although, for some reason, the Catholic Church considered this one of the first heresies). Can anybody imagine the New Testament God adding to the Sermon on the Mount an instruction to invade Cyrene and to kill every man, woman, and child, as well as animal, living there. The Jews did massacre about 250,000 there in the 115-117 A.D. Diaspora Uprising.

Yahweh massacred all the Egyptian firstborn. Jews celebrate this event as Passover.

Jesus was massacred on Passover. He represents the gentile (Egyptian) firstborn.

This “eruva’ gimmick seems insulting to any god, as it takes a perfectly good word (‘house’ or ‘dwelling’) and redefines it as any given area marked off with some kind of barrier. My favorite story is the one where European Jews decided that the prohibition against “traveling on the Sabbath, except over water” (well, if you’re on a boat, what can you do?). So, these Jews were careful to put a water-bottle under their seats whenever they took a train or coach. Judaism is a racial religion first of all. The hundreds of prohibitions concerning everyday life are just various superstitions of the Near East, codified. As they are so open to outrageous dickering, they can’t be that important. Read any page of a Talmud and you’ll know where the whole idea of totalitarianism originated.

Although the insidious nature of this thing is no real surprise, there is an eerie unwholesomeness about it that, if possible, even surpasses that of the troubling ‘celebrations’ in this otherwise wonderful month of June.

The power of the less than one percent, impressing.

Jews are far more than 1% of the population. I have personally known hundreds and hundreds of Jews. IMHO, Jews are at least 10% of the US population, perhaps more.

The usual percentage given is 2-3%

Kevin: As I am sure you know, since as long ago as the 1950s (if memory serves), when the Jews and their Gentile allies in Congress disallowed the counting of Jews as an ethnic or religious category in the decennial census, virtually all formal, widely accepted estimates of Jewish numbers and percentages in the USA’s population have come from Jewish sources.

If, as I think, it is neither irrational nor uncharitable to consider these sources ipso facto tainted, surely there is justification for taking into account the “anecdotal” observations of careful, cautious men and women in such areas as medicine, the law, education, the media, the arts, and government, all of which are marked by a heavy Jewish presence.

During the past fifteen years, many TOO commenters with such backgrounds have remarked that the figure of 2 or 3 percent for society at large simply seems incommensurate with the disproportionately large, often dominating, Jewish head count in these fields. Although I’d agree that a claim of 10 percent would meet widespread disbelief without evidence provided by the sort of statistical apparatus and hard cash that no interested pro-white source appears to have ready access to, I don’t think that the same can be said for 5 percent. Indeed, I don’t see how the stifling Jewish presence in the named fields could be accounted for by any percentage figure below 5.

I think they are well above 70%, judging by the number of experts I see on TV or read in the media. Then 19% are Blacks, 10% are Hispanics and the rest are Whites.

The message is cogent, plausible, as it identifies yet another tactic of a people who seem incurably toxic….

But their belief in the ERUV is YET ANOTHER inanity characterizing Abrahamic superstitions as embarrassing tomfooleries. (Christianity and Islam may not include such belief, but they have similarly asinine notions!) Truly, these superstitions of West Asian provenance are for idiots–or, in the case of persons of intellect who don’t merely give lip-service to them in view of social reasons, they are for people with deep-seated psychological derangement.

How do you know it’s insanity?

Did you ever entertain the notion that maybe they have a deeper understanding of metaphysics than you do? Maybe there is something to their fetish with numerology, Kabbalah, and astrology. Maybe it’s the source of their power.

At this point, we should not pretend we have greater insight into the nature of the world than they do.

TARRASIK–
Yeah, and maybe they know the difference between INSANITY and INANITY.

But sure, fella: there’s MAGIC–oooh–in being outside the wires! Hey, I know a couple of books that would wow you by their profundity: THE BROTHERS GRIMM and ANDERSEN’S FAIRY TALES.

Sorry, superstitious one: all they really have going for them is our decadence, our loss of backbone, which afflicts all cultures in time. When it comes to understanding the world, they have learned from US. It’s not the Jews who discovered physics, or made the farthest advances in mathematics, or discovered DNA, or propounded key theories like evolution or quantum…. Indo-Europeans introduced philosophy to THEM and where technology is concerned they’ve never been in the running….

They are mostly only shrewd.

Outgrow your awe (or conceits?) if you can.

TARRASIK–
I called it INANITY, not INSANITY.

In any case, are you a believer in hocus pocus and think it manifests intelligence because some people connected with it–not necessarily voluntarily–have acquired some power in the world?

Let’s say, for the sake of argument that the Jews’ god HAS commanded them to behave in a certain fashion every Saturday lol. You suppose then that hanging up some wire will enable them to behave otherwise with complete piety just so long as they do the forbidden things outside the wire?

YES, I call such a thing INANE–ditto circumcision (which is also barbarous, an atrocity inflicted on infants), ditto congenital guilt, ditto belief in guys who live to 950 and save all the Earth’s air-breathing creatures in their boats, ditto the risible dread of saying one’s god’s name, ditto the worship of a JEALOUS (LOL. ) god and any Creator of the Universe that can feel insulted if spoken ill of lol by a creature who’s a molecule living for a nanosecond in the immense expanse of space-time.

But in fact the movers and shakers who’ve acquired great power in the world have not, and do not, credit the eruv, or Kabbalah, or numerology or astrology. No, they are ETHNO-CULTURAL Jews who have been assimilated in the intellectual life of Western Civilization.

My attack was upon superstition, not on the native intelligence of Western Jewry.

Cultural-Marxist Jews are not Jews in religion. Actually, of the very many Jews I’ve known, not a one has been a believer. Down to last Jew and Jewess, they have been agnostics or atheists. They haven’t credited the Torah, let alone Kabbalah, numerology, astrology or lol the eruv. Yet they’ve had an ironclad self-identification as Jews. Ethno-cultural Jews. And what makes them dangerous is that they DON’T credit silly things like the eruv but are intent on seeing what gets you what you want in the real world….

Do I ever entertain the notion that Jews have a deeper understanding of metaphysics than I do?

Outside of Spinoza I haven’t found Jews (or any of the monotheists) to be persuasive metaphysicians. And remember that Spinoza was an apostate, cast out from the synagogue and the recipient of an assassination attempt made by members thereof.

What Jews (and I suspect that includes you) have in abundance is shrewdness and cunning, a tenacious malevolence and collective egoism that makes for cohesion. When it comes to philosophy, art, science and technology they are hopeless debtors to other West Eurasians, especially Europeans. OUR people introduced philosophy to THEM, also drama, opera, ballet, symphonic orchestras, algebra, physics, etc., etc. It’s OUR people who’ve trekked farthest in mathematics, who’ve propounded the key scientific theories from evolution to quantum theory. Even the most celebrated theory attributed to a Jew, relativity, was essentially anticipated by a White non-Jew, Ernst Mach. And where technology is concerned the Jews haven’t even been in the running.

The Arabians basically created the science of chemistry. What have Jews created that’s of comparable weight? Basically all they’ve done is run with sciences and arts originated by lol the unchosen…. They’ve done well, but blazing a trail is harder than following one.

Apparently, “separation of church and state” applies only to Christians.

I never heard of eruvin before. What an astoundingly irrational thing to do. It’s on the level of superstitions like not walking under ladders or fearing the number 13. What stunningly psychopathological behavior will they come up with next?

The observation that Jewry “feeds off of the ‘domestication’ and ‘farming’ of other humans” is profoundly true. This will be the ultimate result of Jewish rule on those who fall under it. Now that biotechnology and genetic modification technology exists they might actually succeed in altering the genetics of non-Jews to create biologically degenerate domesticated Eloi-like Epsilon untermenschen genetically engineered to serve the Master Race and utterly incapable of rebellion. They won’t even want to rebel since they will be engineered to love their servitude and love their masters.

The areas contained within the eruv wires are analogous to the Green Zones established by the American occupation forces in Iraq.

The areas within the wire are the magical Safe Spaces of Jewry where their supremacy is securely established. The abode of the Human Beings. The realm of Light.

Outside the wire lies the Wilderness, Gehenna, Sheol. The haunt of Goyim and other wild beasts. The Outer Darkness still unsanctified, still untransformed by Tikkun Olam.

My favorite kosher ruse is the Quicken Loans Company fakery to, as a majority Jewish-owned firm, make loans to Jews. A practice forbidden under the Jewish laws. It’s a deal where they pretend that the borrower and Quicken Loans enter into a very temporary partnership. Quicken Loans adopted what is known as a heter iska, a technicality that changes the loan into a co-investment in which the lender and borrower become “business partners” — one supplies the capital and the other uses it as they see fit. What about the interest? No problem Quicken Loans always sells its loans immediately to another lender in any case. But these special loans are presumably sold to Gentiles, who collect the interest.

But, an aside: Quicken Loans is not really a lender. They are fee-based loan brokers.

Thank you for this. Just when one thought one had heard it all, the Chosen surprise you again. All the ingenuity and talent they have applied for centuries to nothing but accumulating wealth and inventing new ways to fleece the goyim (and when pressed, each other) left nothing for developing a culture, a civilization of their own.

The San Diego Union Tribune had an article in 2005 (or thereabouts) about Jews in La Jolla stringing wire around that posh seaside neighborhood, regardless of the wishes of the goyim who lived there. At about the same time, a Jewish atheist was suing to get a cross removed from the top of nearby Mr. Soledad — a memorial to fallen San Diego soldiers. The cross, last I heard, survived after years and years of expensive litigation, but only because the public was able to raise enough money to buy the land from the government so that the cross was no longer on public property.

At around the same time, La Jolla’s movers and shakers decided under Jewish pressure to remove the word “Christmas” from the town’s annual Christmas parade. Simultaneously, the City of San Diego renamed “Christmas Nights” in Balboa Park “Winter Nights”.

Shortly after that, Irwin Jacobs, Jewish Qualcom magnate, got the San Diego City Council to agree to create paid underground parking in Balboa Park (parking had been free before) this was supposed to be a great benefit to the citizens of San Diego. Of course, the whole look and ambience of the park had to be radically altered, and little interest was shown in preserving the lawns, trees and vegetation.

And so it goes…I left in San Diego in 2019 and moved to Palm Springs. And I see the same shenanigans going on here: e.g., a Jew named Weiner (who doesn’t even appear to live in Palm Springs) pushing to remove a statue of one of the city’s legendary city fathers — Frank Bogert — “because he was racist” (in 1945!).

I myself have gotten some pushback. Last summer I had a letter published in the local Desert Sun newspaper (now owned by USA Today) questioning the official mortality rate for Covid. A response letter was published ridiculing and misrepresenting what I said. And of course, it was written by a Jew.

In a letter I wrote that was published a few weeks later, I said Covid was a scam and nothing more than an excuse for the Davos crowd to seize all the planet’s resources and ration them out to the rest of us. Then, perhaps in a spirit of exaggeration, I told how we proles would be controlled (as we were depopulated with toxic vaccines) through 5G, nanotechnology, the Internet of Things, and other miracles of modern technology.

Again – quelle surprise! — a Jew responded. But this time with a full length column deploring “the writer of that letter” who wanted to deny the young people of Coachella Valley good high tech jobs!

I don’t want to give the wrong impression though. While Palm Springs certainly has a Jewish past (Hollywood) and present, it’s not nearly as “Jewed” as your average American metro area. It’s still a great place to live. And inexpensive for California.

Regarding covid, I just present a graph showing new covid cases peaked in late December-early January long before a significant number of people were vaccinated. I also present a bar chart showing Florida’s covid deaths per 100,000 is not significantly different from California’s despite Florida’s less draconian covid restrictions and higher elderly population. The stats are from official, respectable “mainstream” sources, so they can’t bitch. And they don’t.

Thank you for another great article.
For anyone interested, here is a link to a website which includes a map showing the Eruvin in London:

I’ve never even heard of eruv. Yet another bizarre and alien aspect of the tribe.
They bury their dead standing up. (Probably because a 3ࡩ plot is cheaper that a 7ࡩ.)
They read and write from right to left.
They bite off foreskins of baby’s penises.
They swing chickens and torture animals to be slaughtered.
They lead the world in psychological disorders and paranoia.
They put invisible wires around their encampments.

Everything they do is odd and AT odds with normal humans around them.
Re-ghettoizing them in every way would remove 99% of the problems from our world.

Ever since Jews were liberated from their totalitarian ghettos during the European Enlightenment, they have ever since strived to recreate this ghetto life of nothing but Talmud study, and money-making.
Their planned utopia, when every every nation on earth is groaning under the jackboot of their technetronic bio-security dystopia, with all peoples broken up & disbanded, and they have destroyed all art, music, literature, culture and human joy or flourishing of any kind, then they will go back to they way they lived(presumably happily enough) for 3,000+ years – nothing but Talmud swindling & mammon-worship, or the other way around. With no juries, liberties, or freedoms of any sort to get in the way of the uber-despotic rule of the Rabbis.
This has been the Jewish project ever since we naively ‘liberated’ them from their medieval ghettos.
As we liberated all our own peasants and middle classes, we inadvertently kicked off a process to not just destroy the new future, but to create Hell on earth. We forget that up until the 1990’s(in UK at least), the general wisdom was that the future was exciting and we all couldn’t wait to arrive.
Obviously if you were a reader of books you understood that by the 1930’s at the very latest the entire ruling elite was well aware that our civilisation was headed for destruction. Certainly Nixon is on tape speaking with Billy Graham in the 1970’s, explaining that they will lose their nation if they don’t get a grip on these Jews.
The Pope during WWI called it correct at the time, “this war is the end of our civilisation.”
But it wasn’t until the phrase ‘Broken Britain’ came into mass use in the 90’s that the general population began to understand we were finished as a society.
You could say it was leftism, not Jews that destroyed Britain, leftism’s destruction of religion, architecture, education, criminal justice, & promotion of mass immigration and every other weird and horrible thing, but leftism is just an out-growth of Judaism, which itself is simply Satanic. And as Satanism inverts, perverts, & destroys, so too does leftism.

“We must vaccinate hundreds of millions of people” says CDC Director Rochelle Walensky.

But why? SARSCov-2 aka “Covid-19” is not a dangerous pathogen to anyone except the old and ill. The actual infection fatality rate as determined by blood serum tests for coronavirus antibodies is around 0.2% according to Stanford Professor of Medicine Jay Bhattacharya. https://imprimis.hillsdale.edu/sensible-compassionate-anti-covid-strategy/

Thus SARS Cov-2 is no different than the seasonal flu. What is different is the extraordinary overreaction. There has been a massive campaign of disinformation to create the illusion of a pandemic when in fact there has been no pandemic. This has been accomplished through the obviously deliberate misuse of the PCR assay and corrupted protocols for reporting cases of “Covid-19” and deaths due to “Covid-19” obviously designed to generate a large number of false cases of “Covid-19” and deaths falsely attributed to “Covid-19.”

Alarmingly, there is increasing information surfacing that the mRNA vaccines (Pfizer and Moderna) and viral vector vaccines (Astra Zenica and Johnson and Johnson) are causing serious harm including 4201 deaths and 18,528 serious adverse reactions after coronavirus vaccination in the US as of May 14, 2021 reported to VAERS (the CDC’s Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System).

Some of the most important recent findings discussed in a recent paper of MIT Prof. Stephanie Seneff are: (1) The coronavirus spike protein appears to be toxic in of itself. (2) The mRNA vaccines (Pfizer and Moderna) are genetically modified to produce a modified version of the coronavirus spike protein which is more toxic than the naturally occurring spike protein (through the addition of prolines rendering the spike protein rigid). (3) There is reason to suspect that the modified spike protein is a prion. (Prions are misfolded proteins which have the capacity to infectiously induce misfolding in related properly folded proteins by a mechanism still not understood). (4) There is also the possibility that, contrary to the claims of the manufacturers and the medical establishment, the synthetic mRNA might actually be reverse transcribed into the human genome. This is because of the LINE-1 (Long Interspersed Nuclear Element) retrotransposon regions of the human genome which contain multiple copies of the genes for reverse transcriptase (which reverse transcribes RNA into DNA) and integrase (which integrates cytoplasmic DNA into the genome). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retrotransposon All these matters are discussed here: https://factcheckvaccine.com/2021/05/stephanie-seneff-ph-d-talkes-about-mrna-vaccines-causing-neurological-damage/

Rochelle Walensky, Anthony Fauci and other medical establishmentarians are too sophisticated not to understand that the Covid-19 pandemic is a hoax. The purpose of the unprecedented mass forced vaccination offensive is plainly NOT to protect public health.

Then what exactly is the purpose? Numerous people are speculating that the purpose is depopulational genocide. This is probably wrong though it can’t be ruled out. It is surely premature to come to this conclusion. However it can be safely concluded that forced vaccination will certainly cause serious harm to large and continually increasing numbers of people as time progresses, especially since there will surely be numerous other vaccines imposed upon the masses in the future. They will not stop with the Covid-19 vaccines! The purpose, rather than depopulational genocide, might be to induce mass debilitating illness in order to render the mass population helpless, dependent, fearful, stressed-out, docile and incapable of any resistance. Hence, ripe for a top-down Globalist Technocratic revolution of the West.

The medically unjustifiable lockdowns and mandatory masking and “social distancing” commands further tend toward mass docility.

My hunch is that all these measures are a repressive response by the Zionist Globalist ruling class to the spreading mass awakening in the West about the JQ, Globalism and the escalating attacks on the White race which has blossomed since circa 2016. These Jewish-led plutocratic Zionist Globalist hostile elites realized that awareness of their power and the leading role of Jewry among them was spreading and threatening to go viral. Hence they deployed their Operation Covid-19 to end freedom of speech and attempt to disrupt the spread of awareness before it reached a critical mass point-of-no-return.

The Zionist Globalist ruling elites are now busily engaged in escalating their war on the Western masses. The forced vaccination campaign is elite biowarfare against the Western masses. The lockdowns are elite economic warfare against the Western masses. The imposition of forced masking is a form of elite psywar against the Western masses. Inciting BLM and Antifa riots through media disinfo propaganda and elite funding and protection while depriving White people of the protection of the law and criminalizing White self-defense is elite anarchotyranny and street violence war specifically targeted against the White Western masses. Coupled as it is with the Kalergian engineered demographic transformation, all this Jewish-led ruling elite warfare by any means necessary poses an accelerated existential threat to the White race and the West more potent than before 2020.

Operation Covid-19 appears to be how the Empire Strikes Back.

David Icke swears in his videos that there isn’t one scientific paper on earth that actually proves that Covid19 exists, never mind any variation of it. If this is true, it’s mind-blowing.
You don’t have to believe everything Icke sais, many on the right dislike him because recently he has been straying away from denouncing the evil elites as “ultra-Zionists” to just “the cult” or “Sabbatean-Frankists” or some such. They also don’t like the way he uses phrases like “fascists” or “Nazis”, basically as swear words to demote all that is evil.
But this is just a kind of tick’ that all people from the old Left have, plus I am glad he does it, as it is leftist-leaning folks who most need persuaded. “Fascist” just means uber-authoritarian in leftist speak. I know they don’t want people pointing this out as I got shadow-banned from Bit-chute for pointing this out to dozens of hard-rightists. As we all know Bit-chute is the most monitored and infiltrated comments section in English, probably only half were genuine, and the rest were security service provocateurs. Either way, they didn’t like it.
The way Icke has changed his ideas over his thirty odd years in the game demonstrates truth to me more than it does deception. He is in my view just a classic English eccentric, of the type we used to produce on mass before this conformist age of ours.
None of us have it all right, we need to take bits from Icke, from Kevin MacDonald, from Richard D Hall, from Andrew Anglin! from whoever you believe to be speaking the truth as they understand it, and come to your own conclusions, which will be different from who you admire, but like theirs, also not the full truth.
It’s just far too complicated for us to figure it all out, atomised as we are, when we are up against our own states’ unlimited recourses of dis-information.
The recent ‘China lab’ theory is classic dis-info, for the purpose of backing up the theory that there even is such a thing as Covid19. But if there is, why isn’t there any scientific paper proving it? Why did the inventor of the PCR test go to his grave screaming as loud as possible that this was all ridiculous gibberish? Amazing how many of these whistle-blowers have unfortunate early deaths.
Another reason Icke has been laying off the Jews recently, in my view, is because of the way he sees the Jewish masses are being treated in Israel. None of us have got any issue with any average Jew-on-the-street, nor would 99.9% of the commenters on this site stand by while an innocent Jew was maltreated just for being a Jew. It’s their organisations that cause us all these unlimited problems.
I wish when discussing the JQ we could find a non long-winded way of stating that it’s not the average Jew our grievances are with, but their nefarious, deadly, and soon to be genocidal organisations.

Emicho: I have heard the theory that Covid-19 does not exist before. I have heard that the only evidence for its existence is genome sequencing from China. So this is a possibility. However, coronaviruses certainly exist even if there were no SARS Cov-2 aka Covdi-19 variant.

In any case there has been no pandemic. There has been no excess mortality and the seroprevalence studies looking for coronavirus antibodies that have been done indicate an infection fatality rate of about 0.2% according to Prof. Jay Bhattacharya of Stanford. https://imprimis.hillsdale.edu/sensible-compassionate-anti-covid-strategy/ There have been numerous real cases of coronaviruses (whether or not they are SARS Cov-2) – just as there always are (coronaviruses are part of the grab bag of viruses called “the seasonal flu”). And the infection fatality rate for these coronaviruses was nothing like a genuine pandemic in which millions would get seriously ill or die.

There is also a theory being bandied about now by Andrew Kaufman that viruses are not real and that what are taken to be viruses are actually exosomes (external vesicles which bud off from cells originating from the cell’s Golgi apparatus). I’m not buying it. Viruses are plainly real. There are plenty of electron micrographs and other evidence. This sounds like a classic disinfo psyop on the order of flat earth and the idea that the moon landing was staged. This is (((nonsense))).

” Numerous people are speculating that the purpose is depopulational genocide. This is probably wrong though it can’t be ruled out. It is surely premature to come to this conclusion.”

You do not believe the luxuriously survival bunkered
Judeo-Masonic NWO ILLuminati Globalist Ruling Oligarchy
are serious about using a preferred most economical bio-WMD or any other affordable weapon system to remedy their proclaimed world humanitarian overpopulation crisis ?

moneytalks: I’m sure the Globalist ruling oligarchy is up to no good with their mandatory vaccination campaign but it doesn’t seem likely that the jab is going to produce a depopulation level genocide. That would require billions of deaths. It will surely kill some people (it already has) and make a lot more people ill or have a debilitating effect on health but it won’t likely kill billions.

Another possibility is that the vaccine will reduce population without actually killing millions and millions by inducing infertility in huge numbers of people.

As I said in my previous comment, I have little doubt that they will be forcing a steady stream of vaccines on the mass population so the death toll and serious harm toll will surely mount over time. This forced vaxxing campaign is indeed alarming and a serious threat but I don’t think it will bring billions of deaths by itself.

There are other threats which might bring genocidal levels of death. Engineered famine like the Holodomor is one. Pushing the US into war with China is another.

Depopulational genocide is not the only thing to fear. Other dangers: totalitarianism, genocide of the White race through demographic swamping rather than mass murder, destruction of the ecosphere, mass extinction and degrading or destroying the biological integrity of the human organism through genetic engineering and other technological alterations of the human body

” This forced vaxxing campaign is indeed alarming and a serious threat but I don’t think it will bring billions of deaths by itself.”

Many bio-medical experts have asserted that a potential for a mass death event by vax does exist when you have the Global Oligarchy pushing for mandatory vax for ninety-plus percent of the world population .

Most people are sheeple and will submit to anything TPTB insist on . The worldwide masking hysteria is clear proof of it given the lack of genuine scientific consensus for the need/effectiveness of masking and given the willingness of the worldwide sheeple majorities to surrender their sovereign property rights over themselves to the Global Rulers ( aka Banksters ) and given the vast majorities are ignorant of the existential risks of submission to medical despotism .

There really is an emerging Malthusian crisis. The Globalist elites have not publicly articulated a policy for dealing with this crisis other than Agenda 21 type measures to gather people into “smart cities,” conserve resources and feed people on GMO crops, insects and synthetic petri dish cultured meat. I’m sure that they are planning some measures to at the very least reduce the birth rate, perhaps by inducing mass infertility, on a scale which will address overpopulation. Would they go as far as engineering a depopulational genocide? They are certainly capable of this.

I agree that the vaxxing campaign will kill many, just not enough to have a serious effect on the gathering demographic crisis. I also agree that there is a real possibility of genocidal depopulation events, but I doubt that they would result from vaxxing only.

The sheeplike passivity of people in following the unprecedented masking commands and getting the jab being pushed on them by transparently disingenuous authorities and a campaign of obvious scientific fraud and media propaganda is disappointing, disturbing and profoundly depressing.

1) Wow, I had absolutely no idea this even existed. Thank you for informing me because I would have no knowledge of this otherwise. It’s incredible how much crazy nonsense jews are able to get away with in our society on the taxpayer dime.

2) Abrahamic religion is beyond asinine.

ABOUT 15 YEASRS AGO, MYSELF AND A DOZEN OR SO PALO ALTANS PREVENTED THE JEWS’ ESTABLISHING AN ERUV IN Palo Alto.

LOTS OF FUR FLYING ABOUT FOR ABOUT 6 OR 8 MONTHS, IT GOT LOCAL MEDIA COVERAGE.
WE DEFEATED IT BUT AFTER SEVERAL YEARS’ WHINEING TO …. THE CITY FINALLY CAVED IN AND PERMITTED A SORT OF HALF-ERUV . THE RABBIS CONSIDER THE STRUNG WIRE TO BE REAL WALLS, NOT JUST ABSTRACTIONS/SYMBOLIC.

WE WERE PROBABLY THE ONLY GOYIM TO SUCCESSFULLY BEAT THE JEWS IN Palo Alto AND THE US. A FEW YEARS AGO I GOT A PHONE CALL FROM LOCAL REPORTER WHO INFORMED ME THAT THE RABBIS HAD FIGURED OUT HOW BEAT BOTH G-D AND LOCAL JEWS & LOCAL ORDINANCE RULES FOR SIGNAGE, ETC.. THEY USE WIRE/CABLES TO ESTABLISH GOD’S ENCLOSURES FOR HIS CHOSEN. GOYIM ARE PERMITTED TO BE INSIDE THE WALLS/ERUV. . BUT THEY ARE MERELY GOATS, ETC, TO BE OUTWITTED AND TRICKED AND EATEN.

JEWS NEVER GIVE UP. IT TOOK SEVERAL YEARS TO WEAR THE LOCAL POLS DOWN. BUT THEY GOT THEIR ERUV”‘WALLS’ .

IF YOU FIND YOUR HOUSE INSIDE OF AN ERUV, YOU ARE LIVING IN JEWISH SPACE.. WAKE UP AMERICA….

I ALSO BEAT THE Palo Alto JEWS ON THEIR SYNAGOGUE ENLARGEMENT. YOU ARE WELCOME TO CONTACT ME.

What a bonkers concept. If these people are subtly controlling the world then we’re really reaching a white knuckle moment.

About eruv battles. Towns in New Jersey fought an expensive battle against eruvin in 2017 – 2019.

I have a recording from “old time radio” CD’s of Father Charles Coughlin, in the 1930’s, admonishing Jews about a recent success against Christian symbols on government property, to congratulate the Jews on their success, but to declare that it was very poor judgement for such a small minority to impose its will on the whole country. Just looking for trouble.

” [ Jews ] Just looking for trouble.”

They have nothing to fear since the 1965 Vatican Council II when Christianity became irreversibly a sheeple-oriented religion of self-enslavement to the chosenhite jewmasterss .

Fortunately with regard to their need for psychological bliss , most Christians seem unable to foresee what their fate will be when their worldly masters cyclicly and inevitably lose a significant share of the market for their fleece ( Hint : sheep roasts are tasty when properly done ) .

01 Those who have ever completely wired a number of houses, and survived it, must ask themselves what gauge [ diameter ] of cable is essential to satisfy their circumvention of all four sequential issues of the Talmud.

02 Is it essential to use copper, after aluminum has been discouraged and even forbidden by the authorities ?

03 Is it sufficient for each Eruv wire to consist of a single conductor, or is a triple conductor cable required: for two positives, one neutral and one ground: like your stove connection ?

04 While it is advisable to stay abreast of their silly-ass, G-d cheating Voodoo BULLSHIT, we are also entitled to adequate rest and recuperation at night without dashing to our medicine cabinet.

05 Therefore, without fail, I watch YOUNG RUSSIAN ICEDANCERS on the net: always an assured antidote.
My favorites, by far, are Evelina Pokrasneteva [9], and Ilya Makarov. [11]. They are thoroughly cued in on one another and the music, to the nanosecond. Each little accompanying story-line a pure pleasure.

06 In my favorite performance, Evelina enters by crawling on all four, tapping her hands on the ground so as not to run into any obstacles: since she is blind. Ilya is sitting on a suitcase which he raises so as not to obstruct her. After he raises it she hits her head on it. She crouches down, into an almost fetal position and places her hands on her hurting head. This scene is the most successful depiction of any and all hurt that has ever been inflicted on womanhood: both in time and space. .

07 I like good popular, sensible music, but have also seen my share of opera. This image of Evelina, blind, hurt, alone and uncared for, is, in my opinion, easily equal to the best moment of any opera.

08 Ilya, symbolized by his suitcase as also alone, begins to dance with her. Twice she skates off into the wrong direction, missing his whereabouts, but is retrieved by him. Their final embrace, after she skates along, with her hands raised, looking for him, is heart rending.

09 They also feature several hilarious numbers.

10 Indicators of Slavic Untermenschen were entirely lacking in these performers, as indeed among the remainder of the audiences. It would be great if other modern nations would spend time and resources on the cultural development of their youngsters: i.e. well beyond racialist mathematics !

11 Cancel your next Tylenol fix and give the above a try instead.

In the article there is a cryptic statement that the Eruv wires are “regulated by city ordnance and subsidized by taxpayers.” Can anyone expand on this subsidization?

“Known as an eruv, the wire is a symbolic boundary that allows observant Jews to carry out a range of ordinary activities otherwise forbidden on the Shabbat” – So, let me get this straight: Jews create a symbolic boundary so they can engage in activities that their Hebrew Bible and God would otherwise forbid? Got it. Geez, they are truly masters of deception.


The Words of War

Ferguson’s short passage has some deep, important lessons and implications for how to think of the world we inhabit.

“Historians always yearn for closure, for a date when their narratives can end. But in writing this book I have begun to doubt whether the war of the world described here can genuinely be regarded as over even now. Rather like Wells’ science-fiction The War of the Worlds, which has been reincarnated as an artifact of popular culture at more or less regular intervals, the War of the World chronicled here stubbornly refuses to die. As long, it seems, as men plot the destruction of their fellow-men—as long as we dread and yet also somehow yearn to see our great metropolises laid waste—this war will recur, defying the frontiers of chronology.”

Niall Ferguson, The War of the World, page lxxi.

The passage above from Niall Ferguson’s 2006 book has always intrigued me as a historian in three basic realms. First is his argument that World War II should be understood as a high point or culmination of a longer, sustained crisis. This is not a new idea—ever the student of history, Winston Churchill much earlier referred to the period of 1914–1945 as a new Thirty Years War—but Ferguson argues that the global crisis is actually a 50-years war from 1904–1953, invoking the rise of Asia from the Russo-Japanese war through the truce on the Korean peninsula. But an expanded historical canvas is always worthy of examination, and often sparks new perspectives and ideas.

His second, more philosophically intriguing notion is that the crisis period in fact has not ended. Since the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, historians, scholars, and many others have asserted that a new era has in fact dawned. From the European Union in the realm of concrete, practical systems, to the so-called “End of History” and the triumph of liberal democratic political and economic systems in the realm of ideas, humanity is now supposed to be walking in the “broad, sunlit uplands” promised by Churchill in 1940. In our modern world filled with headlines that often signify the readjustment or even end of key elements of the post-1945 peace, it is a significant detail that Ferguson has argued that the truly revolutionary year for our modern world was not 1989, but 1979. It was 1979 that saw the revolution of fundamentalist Islam in Iran, China’s Deng Xiaoping usher in economic reforms that founded that nation’s tremendous rise, the Soviet Union set its own ultimate demise in motion with the invasion of Afghanistan, and the recovery of free-market economics in the West ushered in by Margaret Thatcher’s government in Britain. But Ferguson’s larger point, and worry, is that the revolutions of 1989 did not change human nature, and our propensity to organized political violence. There is no doubt that Ferguson is correct that the geopolitical fault lines that erupted into violence in the 20th century remain—in Korea, in Asia between Japan and China, in Eastern Europe between Russia and Germany. Therefore, has the conflict truly ended, or merely been deflated, or contained?

Lastly, surely Ferguson is correct that human nature has not radically changed since 1989, much less 1979 or 1945. But just as historians have written of a short 20th century from 1914–1989, they have also written of a long, peaceful 19th century from 1815–1914, lacking world wars. If human nature did not fundamentally change in 1945, much less 1933 or 1917, what does that imply for human nature since 1789? We can reasonably conclude that human nature, with all its flaws, was intact throughout the 19th century. So why, comparatively, was it peaceful? Historians often emphasize technological, industrial, and economic changes that influenced the battlefield, or political changes that strengthened the state’s abilities to wage war, as making the world wars of the 20th century uniquely destructive. But is that true? Not only did human nature remain consistent in the 19th century, but there was ferocious warfare in Europe and the United States in the 1850s and 1860s, and arguably the third worst war in terms of death toll in all history was fought at this time. One source estimates that the Taiping rebellion took up to 20 million lives in China from 1850–1864, and was fought over religious conflicts in a nation that lacked the industrial, technological, economic, and political reasons that historians have attributed for the extreme warfare of the 20th century.

For me, Ferguson’s short passage has some deep, important lessons and implications for how to think of the world we inhabit. First is that history never truly ends we make history by our choices every day. Second is that human nature remains consistent, and the seeds for war and violence remain within us, with the potential to escalate beyond our control and our wildest imaginations. Lastly, we cannot afford to forget. It is only through learning and memory, through study and knowledge of history, that we build understanding of how bad things can become, and how to choose wise paths to avoid the unthinkable.

“A place can evoke the history that occurred there, but through words our minds truly gain perspectives and understanding of what it was like to know, feel, experience, hope, fail, triumph, and live through events from which we ourselves were absent. The written word is our most intricate map to retrace and reconstruct what we think happened, and ultimately brings us back to ourselves.”
– Keith Huxen, PhD, Senior Director of Research and History, The National WWII Museum


Proceedings against Trawniki Officials

Some key officials at Trawniki did not survive the war or its immediate aftermath. Globocnik committed suicide upon capture by the British in Carinthia on May 31, 1945. Höfle was arrested by Austrian authorities in 1961 and committed suicide in his cell on August 21, 1962. Neither Trawniki battalion commander survived the war: SS Second Lieutenant Willi Franz went missing on July 31, 1944. SS First Lieutenant Schwarzenbacher was killed by partisans near Trieste on June 2, 1944. Bartetzko was killed at the front in January 1945.

Other Trawniki officials faced prosecution in the postwar decades. A West German court in Hamburg indicted Streibel, Napieralla, and four Trawniki company commanders in 1970, but acquitted all six defendants in 1976. Soviet military tribunals or Soviet civilian courts prosecuted hundreds, possibly as many as a thousand, of Trawniki-trained guards after the war: virtually all were convicted, some were executed. A handful of Trawniki-trained guards were tried in the West. A German court in Düsseldorf sentenced Franz Swidersky, a Treblinka labor camp guard, to life imprisonment in 1971.

The United States initiated successful denaturalization proceedings against 16 former Trawniki guards, including three who served at killing centers, and virtually all of whom guarded Jewish prisoners at Trawniki itself.


John C. Kemp: On "Mending Wall"

The conflict in "Mending Wall" develops as the speaker reveals more and more of himself while portraying a native Yankee and responding to the regional spirit he embodies. The opposition between observer and observed--and the tension produced by the observer's awareness of the difference--is crucial to the poem. Ultimately, the very knowledge of this opposition becomes itself a kind of barrier behind which the persona, for all his dislike of walls, finds himself confined.

But at the beginning, the Yankee farmer is not present, and the persona introduces himself in a reflective, offhanded way, musing about walls:

Something there is that doesn't love a wall, That sends the frozen-ground-swell under it And spills the upper boulders in the sun, And makes gaps even two can pass abreast.

Clearly, he is a casual sort. He broaches no difficult subjects, nor does he insist on talking about himself yet Frost is at his best in a sentence like this. Through the language and rhythm of the lines we gain a faint but unmistakable sense of the poem's conflict. Like the "frozen-ground-swell," it gathers strength while lying buried beneath the denotative surface of the poem. From the start, we suspect that the speaker has more sympathy than he admits for whatever it is "that doesn't love a wall."

Frost establishes at the outset his speaker's discursive indirection. He combines the indefinite pronoun "something" with the loose expletive construction "there is" to evoke a ruminative vagueness even before raising the central subject of walls. A more straightforward character (like the Yankee farmer) might condense this opening line to three direct words: "Something dislikes walls." But Frost employs informal, indulgently convoluted language to provide a linguistic texture for the dramatic conflict that develops later in the poem. By using syntactical inversion ("something there is . . .") to introduce a rambling, undisciplined series of relative clauses and compound verb phrases ("that doesn't love . . . that sends . . . and spills . . . and makes . . ."), he evinces his persona's unorthodox, unrestrained imagination. Not only does this speaker believe in a strange force, a seemingly intelligent, natural or supernatural "something" that "sends the frozen-ground-swell" to ravage the wall, but his speech is also charged with a deep sensitivity to it. The three active verbs ("sends," "spills," "makes") that impel the second, third, and fourth lines forward are completed by direct objects that suggest his close observation of the destructive process. He appreciates the subterranean dynamics of the frost, he knows how spilled boulders look in the bright winter light, and he seems so familiar with the gaps that we suspect he has walked through more than a few (evidently with a companion).

The first line of "Mending Wall" is also notable because it functions effectively as a counterpoint to the farmer's "good fences" apothegm, which appears once in the middle of the poem and then again in the final line. The farmer is summed up by his adage, fittingly his only utterance his reiteration of it is an appropriate ending to the poem because it completes a cyclical pattern to which the speaker has no rejoinder and from which he cannot escape. Beyond expressing an attitude toward walls, it evokes the farmer's personality through its simplicity and balanced directness. The basic subject-verb-object syntax of the five-word maxim is reinforced by the repeated adjective and by the symmetrical balance and rhythmic similarity of subject ("Good fences") and object ("good neighbors") on either side of the monosyllabic verb "make." The persona's initial observation, "Something there is that doesn't love a wall," with its hesitations and indefinite circumlocutions, conveys not only a contrasting opinion, but also a different way of thinking from the tight-lipped Yankee's. Significantly, though the speaker's observation is reiterated later in the poem, it is not a self-contained statement. Unlike the farmer's encapsulated wisdom, it is a protest, a complaint leading into a series of tenuously linked explanations, digressions, and ruminations.

Throughout the first half of the poem the speaker contemplates the deterioration and repair of walls, strengthening our awareness of his two central traits his whimsical imagination and his fine sensitivity to detail. He digresses to describe hunters who actively tear walls apart in search of rabbits. Then he returns to his own interest in a more mysterious, unseen, unheard, destructive power. With relaxed, conversational irrelevance, he launches in a discussion of the rebuilding ritual, objective physical description to a light touch of fantasy--"We have to use a spell to make them balance"--which is likely to be noticed only because of the suggestive hints made earlier to the strange force responsible for the gaps.

Frost's control of tone during this desultory ramble is responsible for the speaker's ability to hold our attention and pique our interest. Even on successive readings, we are surprised by the implications of a given line or phrase, and we find ourselves gauging how much of a smile or frown accompanies each sentence. The imagined spell of line 18 dissolves in the jocularity of line 19: "'Stay where you are until our backs are turned!'" Yet, just as quickly, the concrete, sensory images in the following line remind us of the real effort such work requires: "We wear our fingers rough with handling them."

Having touched on the seriousness of wall building, however, the speaker indulges in another irreverent speculation:

Oh, just another kind of outdoor game, One on a side. It comes to little more.

The unceremonious sentence fragment and the deprecatory offhandedness of "just another kind" and "comes to little more" are unsuited to the earnestness of the preceding line yet by now we are accustomed to incongruities, and we suspect that behind his capriciousness there is something on the speaker's mind. The allusion to an "outdoor game" evokes rivalry and competition, not only in wall repair, but also in wall destruction. This persona shows great appreciation of playfulness and recognizes many kinds of sport. If the wall builders participate in one "kind of outdoor game together," then they surely play another game against the wall destroyers: the hunters and those mysterious underground forces that wait strategically until the workers' backs are turned before spilling any more boulders. Hints of opposition and competitiveness soon gain strength in lines that effect a marvelous blend of natural fact and fanciful fabrication:

He is all pine and I am apple orchard. My apple trees will never get across And eat the cones under his pines, I tell him.

This telling passage indicates how far the persona's imagination can carry him. It is true that the acidity of pine duff would prevent apple seeds from taking root, but simple aboricultural observation leads to a fantastic--and deeply revealing--personification. Although the speaker seems merely facetious, his imagery betrays antagonism as he ridicules the farmer, implying that he is too foolish and stubborn to see the incongruity of a rapacious invasion of apples (which are edible) seeking to devour pine cones (which are not). While attacking his neighbor's lack of open-minded amiability, the speaker is the one who exhibits antisocial tendencies. He is quick to think the worst, presuming that the farmer's concern with the wall is motivated by base selfishness, despite the latter's expressed interest in being "good neighbors." Furthermore, it is not the farmer but the speaker who initiates the mending-wall ritual. Thus these lines heighten a still undefined tension and reveal surprising complexities while preparing us for the Yankee farmer's blunt precept: "Good fences make good neighbors." Such a forceful line crystallizes the poem's dramatic conflict by standing in salient opposition to everything the persona has said and, indeed, to his mode of speech. It is a remarkable and memorable line, not because of its inherent truth or quotability, but because of Frost's effective anticipatory presentation of an extraordinarily imaginative antagonism to "good fences."

Just as the twenty-five lines preceding the farmer's aphorism contribute to its impact, so do the sixteen succeeding lines that lead up to its reiteration. But once the conflict of farmer and observer has been made overt, the last section of the poem develops a contentiousness that further elucidates the differences between the two characters and reveals how little sociability there is between them. As the poem draws to its close with a chimerical vision of the farmer as "an old stone savage" the term "neighbor" seems increasingly ironic. The farmer looms not as an associate or coworker, but as an alien being whom the speaker observes, criticizes, and reflects upon while maintaining his distance and objectivity.

The two men--farmer and observer, insider and outsider--are separated by deep differences in perception, differences that the speaker does not fully appreciate. He thinks they are building a wall, but to his neighbor it is merely fence mending. A more significant contrast is suggested by the Yankee farmer's reliance on shibboleth (a from of mental enclosure). Confident in his beliefs, he relies on traditional wisdom to suppress inquisitive or speculative tendencies. He concerns himself not with the whys and wherefores of walls but with the simple, practical fact (to him a fact) of their efficacy. His unwillingness to explain or debate his position implies that he feels there is nothing to be gained through communicating or exchanging ideas. If fences are good, then, conversely, too much closeness between neighbors must be undesirable. Indeed, there is no evidence that his "neighborly" relations with the speaker extend much beyond the laconic yearly ritual described in the poem. Satisfied to confine himself behind his personal wall of self-assumed taciturnity, he never converses with the speaker. He only repeats the aphorism he learned from his father, as if to keep from something original (or as if incapable of saying something original).

The persona, for his part, does not equate thinking with to adages instead of accepting parental or neighborly authorities, he seems willing to "go behind" anyone's sayings, including his own. Even his tendentious investigation of whatever it is "that doesn't love a wall" is inconclusive, shifting as it does from the mysterious instability of walls to the foibles of the barrier-loving neighbor before finally dissipating in bitter complaints. But conclusiveness can hardly be the major concern of a speaker so given to equivocations (ll. 21-22, 36-38), digressions (ll. 5-9), questions (ll. 30-34), suppositions (ll. 28-29, 32-35, 41-42), and outright fantasies (ll. 18-19, 25-26, 39-40).

After ranging from careful description to seemingly frivolous speculation, from shrewdness to willful illusiveness, and from subtle irony to urgent sincerity, the persona grows diffident toward the end of the poem about his own perceptions. He is particularly uncertain about how he should respond to his neighbor. Though wanting to "put a notion" in his head, he goes no further than conjecture: "I wonder / If I could." His claim that "Spring is the mischief in me" recalls the mischievous force "that doesn't love a wall," yet he does not try to make gaps in the farmer's mental fortifications. He indulges only in speculative, figmental "mischief," contemplating the crucial question he dares not ask: "Why do they make good neighbors?" He even undercuts his strongest comment with a qualifier: "He moves in darkness as it seems to me" (my emphasis).

Ironically (and there is much irony in this poem), although the speaker complains about his neighbor's unfriendliness, his own susceptibility to subjective vision and his willingness to let his imagination run away with him predispose him also to prejudicial attitudes He sees the wall and its symbolism virtually overwhelms him. By contrast, the farmer, who surely knows that "fence" is a misnomer for the country-style stone wall they are working on, sees no sinister implications in it and evidently uses the slightly imprecise adage to show his desire not "to give offense." It was a brilliant touch by Frost to use wordplay in exposing his persona's central misjudgment. For wordplay is the mark of the poet, and it is a poet's sensibility that so delightfully plays this speaker false. It is only in the imagination that the fence gives offfence, and it is only this visionary speaker who insists a wall cannot be innocent, cannot be the benign fence of the farmer's precept.

Ultimately, the persona's imahinative and indecisive dispositin renders him incapable of challenging the Yankee's confident maxim. But Frost has shrewdly made him both unable and unwilling to settle on an argument that might demonstarte what it is to want a wall down. The allusion to elves, though meaningful to the persona, would never appeal to the hidebound farmer it is such a hopeless suggestion that it leads to a kind of surrender: "I'd rather / He said it for himself." Yet this concession only reaffirms the personality displayed earlier. The speaker's sensitivity to what he sees may excite his desire for action, but he is neither capable nor desirous of didactic argument. Though the Yankee farmer says little in the poem, we may not notice that the persona actually has less to say to break down those walls he finds so detestable. He can only imagine saying something, for he is an observer and a commentator, not a reformer or a philosopher.

In the closing lines of "Mending Wall" the Yankee farmer may seem to get the last word and leave his antagonist circumscribed--indeed, walled in--by an alien philosophy. But truly, the speaker has mended the walls of his own personality, and instead of combating an opponent, attempting moral or philosophical sallies, and worrying about victory or defeat, he has again taken an observer's approach to his neighbor. At the end he presents a highly imaginative and appropriately climactic response to the Yankee, envisioning him as a shadowy "old-stone savage." As he completes this portrait, he brings his own drama to its denouement. His deep feelings about walls have led him to challenge what he takes neighbor's antithetical position but after recognizing the futility of debate, he returns to his original contemplative outlook.

This study of Frost's treatment of his persona in "Mending Wall" should be sufficient to establish that the poem is not primarily an expression of moral views on neighborliness. Contrary to the burden of critical opinion, it is less about neighborliness than it is about modes of thought, about language, perhaps even about poetry itself. To the speaker, the farmer is antipathetic because he seems so antipoetic: he distrusts the flow of words, ideas, and feelings. Lacking a playful imagination and the willingness to "go behind" a saying or a concept, he seems cut off from the poetic. But we must not forget that the failure of communication in the poem is mutual. And in truth, Frost's persona is the less communicative and the more hostile of the two. His portrait of an intractable neighbor involves feverish speculation that makes us doubt the reliability of his point of view. On the surface of it, at least, the Yankee's brief adage bespeaks more amiability than do the speaker's speculations and suspicious conjectures. Yet Frost offers no answers in "Mending Wall," no clues about who is right or wrong. He does not moralize: he demonstrates. And what he demonstrates is a conflict that commands our attention because in its origin and development it exhibits the power of imagination in flight.

From Robert Frost and New England: The Poet as Regionalist. Copyright © 1979 by Princeton UP.


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When Sennacherib came to power in 705 B.C.E., he inherited an empire in flames.

Under his father Sargon II, the Assyrian army had been beaten back by rebels in Tabal, today central Turkey. Following Sargon's II's death that year, civil unrest spread like wildfire inside the empire.

To consolidate his rule, Sennacherib went campaigning. First he secured his rear, vanquishing unrest. That done, in 701 B.C.E. Sennacherib embarked on what he called his "third campaign." His first objective in the westward drive was to secure Phoenicia. Most of the coastal cities surrendered at the mere sight of his forces.

But not all kings surrendered and offered tribute. The rulers of Ekron, Gaza and King Hezekiah of Judah balked.

The Hebrew sources for what ensued are 2 Kings, 2 Chronicles, Micah, and Isaiah. We also have the annals of Sennacherib reliefs found in the Assyrian city of Nineveh (Iraq) and remains of a siege found in Lachish (Israel) Herodotus, the Greek historian who lived in the 5th century B.C.E., and 600 years later, the Jewish-Roman historian Josephus.

Sennacherib shown at the gates of Lachish, ordering its "slaughter", from Nineveh relief at the British Museum oncenawhile

A very badly frightened king

The Assyrians describe Sennacherib's third campaign in the Annals of Sennacherib and the Rassam Cylinder, a ten-sided artifact 49 centimeters in height found in Nineveh and written in cuneiform, which among other things gloats about plunder taken during the campaign. The Assyrian sources are the oldest and most contemporary historical record of the campaign: the earliest, the Rassam cylinder dates to 700 B.C.E. other versions of Sennacherib's annals dates to 694-689 B.C.E.

There are some holes in the Assyrian tale. The Assyrians say Jaffa was part of the Ashkelon kingdom, but the two cities were far apart and Ashdod – run by a different king altogether - lay between them. Finally, the Assyrians claimed to have taken 200,150 captives from Judah, which sounds a tad far-fetched.

Of course, the purpose of ancient record-keeping was not accuracy per se, but to convey a message. In this case: Backed by the god Ashur, the Assyrian king overpowered rebels and subdued Judah (Israel had already become part of the Assyrian provincial system under Sargon in 720 BCE) kings who refused to bow before them were ousted, and replaced with vassal kings. Rebellious leaders were punished horribly. On the Judahite king:

"[Hezekiah] I made a prisoner in Jerusalem, his royal residence, like a bird in a cage" (Translated from the annals of Sennacherib by Mordechai Cogan, The Raging Torrent 125, 2nd edition, Jerusalem 2018).

The Assyrians portrayed King Hezekiah of Jerusalem, a principal enemy, as a coward quailing before the Assyrian might, as toothless as his god Yahweh, who failed to prevent the Assyrians from capturing 46 of his strongholds. Sennacherib sneered that Yahweh would prove to be as impotent as the gods of other lands that had already fallen (2 Kings 18:17-35, Isaiah 36:2-3).

Among Sennacherib's victories was the powerful Judahic city of Lachish. Apparently cowed by the loss of Lachish, "caged" Hezekiah delivered a vast ransom: 30 talents of gold, worth $2 million today, silver (the Assyrians say 800 talents, the Bible says 300 – which would have been worth around $11 million), luxury items – and his daughters and women.

Deportation of spoils, prisoners from Lachish after Sennacherib and the Assyrians rolled over the city Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP(Glasg)

In the terms of the time, that meant the gods of Assyria were mightier than the neighbors'. The Judahic version naturally cast the sparing of Jerusalem in a different light, as a proactive deed of the deity: Yahweh sent an angel who struck down 185,000 Assyrians in a single night, and Sennacherib fled (2 Kings 19:35-37. Isaiah 37:33-37. 2 Chronicles 32:21).

"this is what Jehovah says about the king of Assyria: He will not come into this city, Or shoot an arrow there, Or confront it with a shield, Or cast up a siege rampart against it" – 2 Kings 19:32

Up against god himself

After the fall of Lachish, Hezekiah pays the tribute demanded by Sennacherib (2 Kings 18:14-16) Ergo, Sennacherib continued to assail Judah after its king had capitulated (2 Kings 19:8-9). Why would the Assyrian king do that?

The people of Judah angered Jehovah by worshipping Baal, bringing divine vengeance upon their heads (2 King 17:16-17). Assyria was merely Yahweh's rod to administer that discipline:

The Assyrian, the rod to express my anger and the staff in their hand for my denunciation!” – Isaiah 10:5

And that, dear reader, could explain why Sennacherib, after taking the tribute from Hezekiah, continued to attack Judah. Yahweh made him do it.

In that light, King Hezekiah's efforts to fight bolster Jerusalem's defenses, to forge military alliances against the Assyrians and finally, to buy them off, were foredoomed: only Yahweh could settle the score with the Assyrians.

But Yahweh did that very thing too, according to the Bible.

Angel vs. bacteria

The Bible also says 185,000 Assyrian soldiers died in one night while besieging Jerusalem. That decidedly beefy number could stem from misinterpretation of the original Hebrew. Or, did Yahweh get involved after all on the Judahic side as well?

Divine intervention in and of itself is a theme in the Old Testament (Exodus 11:4-12:29, 2 Samuel 24:15-17). The Prophet Samuel describes an angel bringing pestilence against the Israelites. Some scholars think "angel of god" is biblical euphemism for "epidemic". Others simply dismiss the verse as purely theological, and unhistorical.

Alan Millard, emeritus professor of Hebrew and Ancient Semitic languages at Liverpool University, thinks that scholars who simply dismiss the account as purely theological, are simply ignorant of the attitudes of ancient people.

“Assyrian and other royal inscriptions do ascribe the unexpected to divine intervention, even when we might say it was ‘just the weather’. An Egyptian pharaoh said the god Amun overruled the winter weather that might have prevented a princess from the Hittites in Turkey from reaching Egypt. Ashurbanipal, Sennacherib’s grandson, told of fire falling from heaven at the command of the god Assur to destroy an invading army,” he told Haaretz.

Assyrian relief depicting warriors on horses, 8th century B.C.E. From Ashurbanipal's palace at Nineveh De Agostini / Getty Images

By and large the biblical and Assyrian accounts harmonize on many core events. Crucially, both accounts agree that Sennacherib did conquer Lachish, and overran almost all of Judah but not Jerusalem. Leaving gods out of it, there could be other explanations for Jerusalem and Hezekiah's survival. Such as, mice.

The Jewish historian, Josephus, writing in the 1st century C.E., later connected the dots:

When Senacheirimos returned to Jerusalem from his war with Egypt, he found there the force under Rapsakes in danger from a plague, for God had visited a pestilential sickness upon his army, and on the first night of the siege one hundred and eighty-five thousand men had perished with their commanders and officers” - Jospehus, Ja. 10.17.21

Something terrible happened to the terrible Assyrians as they camped outside the Jerusalem walls, resulting in their defeat.

Something terrible also happened to the Assyrians in Egypt, according to Herodotus:

"During the night a horde of field mice gnawed quivers and their bows and the handles of shields, with the result that many were killed, fleeing unarmed the next day" - Herodotus 2.141

Herodotus, who lived in the 5th century B.C.E., tells that Sennacherib marched to Egypt with a force of Arabians and Assyrians. The Egyptian soldiers were petrified but the god Ptah visited the king and priest, Sethon, in a dream and promised he would prevail. Heartened by the divine vision, Sethon gathered a band of merchants, craftsmen and traders and camped at Pelusium, a city in the Nila Delta, to face Sennacherib. They won, the Assyrians lost.

That bit about omitting soldiers and bringing along tradespeople could be ancient hyperbole for "look how we weak defeated the strong," and if anything, supports belief that some battle really did happen.

It's also plausible that mice could bring down an army. If 185,000 Assyrians suddenly upped and died, mouse-born plague is a possibility. But that was in Jerusalem and Herodotus is describing the Egyptian defeat.

Possibly two stories of two different Assyrian humiliations – in Jerusalem and Egypt – became confused over the centuries. It seems implausible that the mighty warriors were brought to their knees time and again by loquat-sized rodents.

Something fishy in the state of Judah

There is a common thread in the Assyrian, biblical and Herodotus' accounts: divine intervention in the affairs of mortals. Sennacherib's annals talk of "the utter dread" of the weapon wielded by their god Ashur.

The Assyrians do not specify what kind of weapon Ashur used. Herodotus and the Bible are clearer on this point: Yahweh's weapon was an angel of death.

To the ancients, the gods ruled the world and settled the affairs of men. The ancient kings and priests mediated with the invisible higher powers on behalf of the people. Thus the personal annals of kings gave credit, or justified their actions, in the name of the gods.

Theoretically, the Assyrian account should be more reliable on Sennacherib's campaign into Judah, because it is contemporary and should theoretically be more accurate also Herodotus' and the biblical accounts incorporated diverse material from various ages and origins and are therefore less credible. But though contemporary, the Assyrian account was as god-struck and saturated with propaganda as anybody else's.

Writers of yore weren't fussed about a story being "true." A chronicler would say King A conquered a city and King B was defeated. A royal annalist would say that King B offended God and therefore was punished by allowing King A to seize his city.

Throughout Sennacherib's drive into the Levant, the Assyrians' clear-cut policy was to quash rebellious kings and replace them with loyalists. The Assyrians were infamous through the ancient world for their cruelty. Warrior monarch Ashurnasirpal describes:

“I built a pillar over against his city gate, and I flayed all the chief men who had revolted, and I covered the pillar with their skins some I walled up within the pillar, some I impaled upon the pillar on stakes, . . . and I cut off the limbs of the officers, of the royal officers who had rebelled. . . .

"Many captives from among them I burned with fire, and many I took as living captives. From some I cut off their hands and their fingers, and from others I cut off their noses, their ears, and their fingers(?), of many I put out the eyes. I made one pillar of the living, and another of heads, and I bound their heads to posts (tree trunks) round about the city. Their young men and maidens I burned in the fire . . . Twenty men I captured alive and I immured them in the wall of his palace. . . . The rest of them [their warriors] I consumed with thirst in the desert of the Euphrates.” –– Translated by Daniel .D. Luckenbill, Ancient records of Assyria and Babylonia, Chicago

No wonder people were terrified of them and resistance would crumble. No wonder the Phoenician coastal cities surrendered without hesitation at the mere sight of the Assyrians no wonder the Phoenician king fled overseas.

No wonder Hezekiah instantly paid heavy tribute after Lachish fell.

Since Assyrians were not famed for having a live-and-let-go policy for their enemies, questions emerge about what on earth happened in the Judah campaign.

Relief of winged bull for Sennacherib at Nineveh (704-681 B.C.E.) Universal History Archive / REX

Why did Sennacherib change policy? Why didn't he dethrone the rebellious king Hezekiah and replace him with a loyal subject? Why wasn't Jerusalem captured like the other capital cities?

At the end of the day, it had to be that murine or other calamity struck the Assyrian camp and the Assyrians had to break off the campaign (Herodotus 2, 2 Kings 19:35-37, Isaiah 37:33-37, 2 Chronicles 32:21). That is the only feasible explanation why the Assyrians didn't conquer Jerusalem. They were simply incapable.

To deliberately show leniency to rebels would have made Sennacherib look weak, resulting in more uprisings.

Sins of the father

However, that Jerusalem rout must have been a hideous embarrassment, which leads us to the seemingly unrelated fact that the Assyrian palace in Nineveh has inscriptions boasting about the victory at Lachish, while the annals omit the whole thing. Now let's connect some dots.

It was not the custom of the Assyrians to record their defeats on the palace walls of Nineveh. Defeat indicated divine disapproval. Sargon's sudden death in Cappadocia (Turkey) was viewed as a bad omen, a divine punishment, throughout all of the Assyrian Empire, resulting in uprisings.

Sennacherib knew this and went to great pains to overcome the sins of his father. One measure was to abandon the capital city Sargon built at Khorsabad and commission a new palace at Nineveh.

The vast palace Sennacherib erected in Nineveh covered an area 450 meters by 210 meters. Among other things it portrayed taking spoils from Lachish:

Sennacherib, king of the universe, king of Assyria, seated upon a armchair the spoils of Lachish passed before him”-– Mordechai Cogan, The Raging Torrent 135 (2nd edition, Jerusalem 2018)

Every foreign or domestic dignitary seeking audience with the king would have seen the relief. Why? Because it showed that the campaign into Judah hadn't been a complete fiasco.

The Assyrians were not above altering historical records as expedient. Sennacherib's sixth campaign against the Elamites is recorded as victorious, but he omits mentioning that right afterwards the Elamite king struck back, venturing as far as Babylon and capturing the Assyrian viceroy.

Similarly, the unsuccessful capture of Jerusalem was recorded boastfully, describing the 200,150 prisoners and talents of silver and gold: 300 silver talents would have been worth almost $2 million in today's tender, and 30 gold talents were worth nearly $12 million. One wonders again about veracity: where would Hezekiah have taken huge sums like that, if the Temple was laid bare every time a foreign army drew near (2 Kings 12:18,16:8 2 Chronicles 16:2,3).

At the end of the day, all accounts – the Assyrians, the Bible, and Herodotus, interpreted events. They didn't invent them.

Something unexpected happened to the Assyrian army, which the people of the ancient Near East attributed to divine meddling.

The ancient kings had to keep their subjects and gods happy and propaganda was the most effective way to distort history and cover up failure. Sennacherib's failure to conquer Jerusalem was embarrassing and was over-compensated by grand reliefs on palace walls and extravagant claims of plunder. The fact that one of the main instigators of the Assyrian rebellion, Hezekiah, remained on the throne, albeit denuded of his wealth and women, may say it all.


Acknowledgments

I thank my colleagues in the TB research community for their generosity in sending published and unpublished data for this review. Regretfully, space limitations prevented the citation of some of this material. I also am grateful to the members of my research group and colleagues at the TB center of the Public Heath Research Institute for helpful discussions. The literature survey for this review was completed in January 2003.

Work from my laboratory discussed in this article was supported by NIH grants RO1 A144856, RO1 HL 64544, and RO1 HL 68513.



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