National Association of Colored Women

National Association of Colored Women


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The National Association of Colored Women (NACW) was established in Washington in 1896. Its two leading members were Josephine Ruffin and Mary Church Terrell. The original intention of the organization was "to furnish evidence of the moral, mental and material progress made by people of colour through the efforts of our women". However, over the next ten years the NACW became involved in the campaigns in favour of women's suffrage and against lynching and Jim Crow laws. By the time the United States entered the First World War membership of the NACW had reached 300,000.


"Shall We Have a Convention. "

The front page of the first edition of the Woman's Era, the journal for the Woman's Era Club.

Rare Books and Special Collections, Boston Public Library.

A proposal for African American clubwomen to convene arose in the first issue of Boston’s The Woman’s Era in 1894. [1] As the first newspaper founded and edited by Black women, this monthly publication served as a means of communication for Black clubwomen across the country at a time when they found themselves largely excluded from White women’s politics. [2] In the pages of The Woman’s Era, Black clubwomen, including Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin and Florida Ruffin Ridley, shaped the representation of Black women by publishing their own articles on topics ranging from fiction, politics, social issues, domestic advice, and club updates. [3]

With a growing number of Black women’s clubs and the birth of this nationally recognized publication, club leaders realized that a national meeting appeared to be the logical next step for advancement of the movement. For the next few months, The Woman’s Era published responses from clubwomen regarding the “convention question.” Nearly all seemed in agreement that the time could not be more “ripe for a convention of the colored women of the country.” [4] Proponents of the convention argued that not only would a convention “lift the spirits and inspire” clubwomen to continue their work, but a national organization would “give solidity, unity of purpose, national character, and other requisites of success necessary to a movement so broad and far reaching as a race organization should be.” [5]

With interest and support of a national convention established, the next task lay in deciding when and where to hold such an event. While some women wanted a meeting as soon as possible, others suggested waiting “until we are able to make such a conference impressive and grandly significant by a display of thoughtfulness, definiteness of purpose, and the presentation of facts and figures relative to work done.” [6] Ultimately, a letter sent to Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin the following spring reinforced the need for Black women to unite together and prompted the immediate planning of a convention.


National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs, Inc. (1896 – )

The National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs, Inc. (NACWC), was established in July 1896 as a merger between the National League of Colored Women and the National Federation of Afro-American Women. The merger enabled the NACWC to function as a national umbrella group for local and regional Black women’s organizations.

The NACWC adopted the motto of “Lifting as We Climb,” promoting self-help among women. During the early years of the organization, the largely educated and middle-class constituency supported temperance, positive images of women through moral purity, and women’s suffrage, issues also pursued by white women’s groups. However, unlike those groups, the NACWC saw their organization in terms of gender and race viewing their women’s movement as a way to uplift black women, men, and children. For example, the NACWC saw the struggle for suffrage as the right to vote not just for women, but also for black men still disfranchised through the political maneuverings of whites.

In 1901, only one regional and six state federations existed by 1916 there were over 300 newly registered clubs with a membership of nearly 100,000. After the United States entered World War I, the NACWC raised over $5,000,000 in war bonds. As the NACWC evolved, its interests expanded to include a host of social services, including raising money for kindergartens, libraries, orphanages, and homes for the elderly. The organization also raised awareness around lynching, segregation, and other issues specific to the black community. In addition to their social services, the NACWC actively promoted cultural events such as musical concerts and literature groups.

Supporting the war effort in World War II, the club women of NACWC endorsed the sale of savings bonds and the federal thrift program. Concurrent with these efforts, the NACWC also rallied around anti-lynching and anti-poll tax legislation, and made repeated appeals to the Agricultural Adjustment Administration to treat African Americans with equality.

During the Cold War, NACWC supported desegregation and anti-communism. They also supported the Civil Rights movements and provided financial assistance to the nine black students integrating Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. Today, the NACWC continues to hold national biennial conferences and has organizations in 32 states. The NACWC has also adapted contemporary issues, including efforts to combat the AIDS virus, violence against women, and workplace exposure to chemicals.

Lillian Serece Williams and Randolph Boehm, Records of the National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs, 1895-1992, A Microfilm Project of University Publications of America, Microfilm Reels Elizabeth Davis, Lifting as They Climb (Washington D.C.: NACW, 1933) Deborah Gray White, Too Heavy a Load: Black Women in Defense of Themselves, 1894-1994 (New York: Norton, 1998).

Republished with permission from: BlackPast.org

How to Cite this Article (APA Format): Wada, K. (n.d.). National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs, Inc. Social Welfare History Project. Retrieved from http://socialwelfare.library.vcu.edu/eras/civil-war-reconstruction/national-association-colored-womens-clubs-inc-1896/

Resources related to this topic may be found in the Social Welfare History Image Portal.


History

The National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs, Inc. (NACWC) was established in July 1896 as a merger between the National League of Colored Women and the National Federation of Afro-American Women. The merger enabled the NACWC to function as a national umbrella group for local and regional Black women’s organizations.

The NACWC adopted the motto of “Lifting as We Climb,” promoting self-help among women. During the early years of the organization, the largely educated and middle-class constituency supported temperance, positive images of women through moral purity, and women’s suffrage, issues also pursued by white women’s groups. However, unlike those groups, the NACWC saw their organization in terms of gender and race viewing their women’s movement as a way to uplift black women, men, and children. For example, the NACWC saw the struggle for suffrage as the right to vote not just for women, but also for black men still disfranchised through the political maneuverings of whites.

In 1901, only one regional and six state federations existed by 1916 there were over 300 newly registered clubs with a membership of nearly 100,000. After the United States entered World War I, the NACWC raised over $5,000,000 in war bonds. As the NACWC evolved, its interests expanded to include a host of social services, including raising money for kindergartens, libraries, orphanages, and homes for the elderly. The organization also raised awareness around lynching, segregation, and other issues specific to the black community. In addition to their social services, the NACWC actively promoted cultural events such as musical concerts and literature groups.

Supporting the war effort in World War II, the clubwomen of NACWC endorsed the sale of savings bonds and the federal thrift program. Concurrent with these efforts, the NACWC also rallied around anti-lynching and anti-poll tax legislation, and made repeated appeals to the Agricultural Adjustment Administration to treat African Americans with equality.

During the Cold War, NACWC supported desegregation and anticommunism. They also supported the Civil Rights movements and provided financial assistance to the nine black students integrating Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. Today, the NACWC continues to hold national biennial conferences and has organizations in 32 states. The NACWC has also adapted contemporary issues, including efforts to combat the AIDS virus, violence against women, and workplace exposure to chemicals.

The Arkansas Association of Women’s Clubs (AAWC) was organized in 1905 after several clubs joined the National Association of Colored Women’s Club in recognizing that in unity there is strength. The first clubs were organized in Little Rock and Fort Smith in 1898. Mrs. Mame Josenberger of Fort Smith met and became friends with Mrs. Booker T. Washington while attending Fisk University. Mrs. Washington visited Mrs. Josenberger in Fort Smith and became aware of the tremendous work the Fort Smith group known as the Relief Corps, was doing to help in a relief effort after cyclone struck the city causing extreme devastation and encouraged them to join the National movement.

In 1901 the Little Rock and the Fort Smith clubs became the first clubs to affiliate with the national organization. They became the Little Rock Branch of the NACWS and Phillis Wheatley Club of Fort Smith. As others clubs in the state were formed they too joined the national organization. My 1905 as the number of clubs across the state had increased, the leaders, Mrs. Mary H. Speight, Mrs. Mame Josenberger, Mrs. Anna T Strickland and other sent out a call for all women’s clubs to come together to consider forming a state association. The necessary action was taken and the Arkansas Association of Women’s Clubs was formed and was granted affiliation with the National Association of Women’s Clubs the same year. The first convention was held in 1908 in Hot Springs, Arkansas and Mrs. Mary H. Speight was elected president.

The women who pioneered the Arkansas and National Associations were engaged in missionary and charitable work, sewing circles, reading clubs, literary societies, mothers’ meetings and community service organizations. They were in careers as teachers, principals, physicians, nurses, and worked in other community endeavors. There cause was to improve health care for the sick, elderly, and less fortunate in their neighborhoods. The clubs were organized for the mutual benefit of its members and for group and family improvement. The objectives have not changed. Programs and services strategies have kept up with the challenges of the social political and economic needs of local, state and national conditions.

The main objective of the AAWC, Inc. during the first two decades was the establishment of a home for boys and girls who were sent to prison built for adult offenders. After many years and many visits to the offices of State officials this objective was met. A training school for boys was established in 1928-29. It took 20 years more to get the girls facility established and funded by the State. Since then, Arkansas club women turned their attention to education, scholarships, leadership training, and cultural enrichment for girls, boys and young adults. AAWC sponsored music, dance, arts and crafts and literary activities with great success at the region and national level. A large number of youth have been winners’ at all three levels and were elected officers of the SW Region and National Youth Associations.

In the early years, Mrs. Jane E. Lindsey donated 60 acres of land near Pine Bluff for development. The land is still owned by the Arkansas Association and is used to grow pine and hard wood timber.

One of the most important achievements of the AAWC was the erection of a Cultural Arts Center in Little Rock. The Center, located at 1123 Cross Street, is used by the AAWC for Board/Executive Council meeting and is available for community use.

Arkansas has 13 adult clubs, 5 youth clubs and in it 112 year history has had 28 presidents. The Arkansas Association of Women’s Clubs, Inc. has a proud history and the women of vision who started this movement more than 100 years, left us a legacy of strength, courage, leadership and achievement.


The History of the National Association of Colored Women’S Clubs, Inc. : A Legacy of Service


In highlighting the history of the oldest black womens organization in the United States, The History of the National Association of Colored Womens Clubs, Inc., written by scholar Dr. Charles Wesley, provides a comprehensive insight into the historical achievements and activities of the organization from its creation to 1984.
The book offers an interesting history of how the organization evolved and functioned nationwide into one of the most respectable black organization.
It is highly recommended for readers interested in understanding the role of black women in uplifting the black community through community service involvement with programs focusing on childcare, education, and social services. The clubwomen established local, state, and regional chapters nationwide. The History of the National Association of Colored Womens Clubs, Inc., utilizes the organizations conference reports, minutes, and National Notespublication, as primary sources to depict how the clubs carried out their goals and operated in society to make a difference.
The voices of the pioneer women in the National Association of Colored Womens Clubs, Inc., can be envisioned by reading this pivotal work. Their achievements are noteworthy in our history. They have inspired women in the organization to continue to be involved in carrying out its mission by upholding its motto, lifting as we climb. This book prepares the foundation for the next edition focusing on the history of the organization to the present.


Anti-Lynching Campaign

In 1917, some 10,000 people in New York City participated in an NAACP-organized silent march to protest lynchings and other violence against Black people. The march was one of the first mass demonstrations in America against racial violence.

The NAACP’s anti-lynching crusade became a central focus for the group during its early decades. Ultimately, the NAACP was unable to get a federal anti-lynching law passed however, its efforts increased public awareness of the issue and are thought to have contributed to an eventual decline in lynchings.

By 1919, the NAACP had some 90,000 members and more than 300 branches.


NCNW History

The National Council of Negro Women (NCNW), the first black organization of organizations, and the first national coalition of black women’s organizations, was founded on December 5, 1935, by Mary McLeod Bethune. Since its Inception, it has had four presidents: Mary McLeod Bethune (1935–49), Dorothy Boulding Ferebee (1949–53), Vivian Carter Mason (1953–57), and Dorothy Irene Height (1957–98). Modeled after the National Council of Women (NCW), a white association that included few black women’s organizations, the NCNW was proposed by Bethune as an effective structure to “harness the great power of nearly a million women into a force for constructive action.”Prior to 1935, the National Association of Colored Women (NACW) was the foremost national organization of African-American women. Founded in 1896 as a national coalition of black women’s clubs, many of which were of local and regional significance, it had established an enviable record of achievement and attracted a significant number of black women leaders. As a young woman seeking national support and visibility for her fledgling school, the Daytona Normal and Industrial Institute, Bethune affiliated with the NACW (1912). Moving through the ranks, Bethune served as president of the Florida Federation of Colored Women’s Clubs (1917–1924), founder and president of the Southeastern Association of Colored Women (1920–25), and as the eighth president of the NACW (1924–28). It was the latter experience that convinced Bethune of the need for a National Council of Negro Women.

THROUGH THE YEARS

Between 1896 and 1935, over thirty national organizations of African-American women were founded. In addition to the NACW, there were college-based professional sororities and a number of religious, political, and professional organizations. The effectiveness of these organizations was frequently undermined by program duplication and competitiveness. Although a number of their members joined the NACW, few national organizations affiliated. It was Bethune’s perception that the NACW’s membership structure in some ways prevented it from affirming the level of power that the NCW wielded. When asserting their right to speak for black women, NACW presidents frequently quoted membership numbers. With the exception of Bethune, presidents serving between 1900 and 1934 cited a membership of 50,000. In 1927, Bethune laid claim to an organizational base of 250,000 members. The NCW, an umbrella organization for national women’s organizations, claimed to represent millions of women, members of its diverse affiliates.

Beyond the issue of structure, as president of the NACW, Bethune had experienced significant opposition to the promotion and implementation of her organizational agenda. Her primary goal was to have black women fully represented in national public affairs. Achievement of this purpose required establishing a headquarters in the nation’s capital and employing an executive secretary. She was also concerned about the lack of a clear feminist focus and commitment in NACW to women’s issues, and especially to working-class and poor black women. While Bethune was an ardent supporter, and frequently a part of the black leadership that defined key race issues and strategies, by 1928 she was extremely concerned about the lack of financial support NACW members and African-American women gave to causes and issues specifically related to the NACW and to black women. Bethune noted that black women spent an inordinate amount of time and effort raising money for male-dominated organizations and male-defined causes. Bethune’s focus on securing and maintaining a national headquarters brought her and her program into direct conflict with the old guard NACW leadership, which for years had made retrieval, restoration, and maintenance of the Frederick Douglass home a major fund-raising and organizational priority.

Bethune’s decision to found the NCNW was based on an astute analysis of the issues of the time, the weaknesses of the NACW, and her personal need for continued recognition as the leader of a major organization of black women. In 1928, at the end of her tenure as NACW president, Bethune began to recruit supporters for the development of a new organization. In December 1929, she invited the heads of all national black women’s organizations to meet in Daytona Beach, Florida, to discuss the development of a “National Council of Colored Women.” Bethune argued that women’s organizations were “more numerous and diversified and more keenly alive to the needs of the group” and “in a better position to make use of the Negro’s purchasing power as an effective instrument to keep open the doors that have remained closed.” She stated that the proposed meeting would forge new relationships among black women, and that the new organization would provide an unprecedented base of power for black women.

Between 1929 and 1935, Bethune held a number of planning meetings attended by key black women leaders. A national promotion committee, chaired by Bethune, was authorized to contact and inform every national organization of the purpose of the national council plan. Organizations were asked to consider the idea at their annual conventions, or in executive committee meetings, and to send representatives to the council planning meetings.

After six years of recruitment, discussion, and planning, Bethune had garnered the support of the fourteen black women’s organizations represented at the 1935 founding meeting, held in New York City at the 137th Street Branch of the Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA). Although NACW did not affiliate with the National Council of Negro Women, a number of its prominent members, including Mary Church Terrell and Charlotte Hawkins Brown, attended the founding meeting. Both Terrell and Brown argued against the founding of the NCNW. Brown, the president of the North Carolina Federation of Colored Women’s Clubs, a supporter of Bethune and the national council concept, anticipated that NACW president Mary F. Waring would accuse Bethune of splitting the NACW thus, for political expediency she contested a permanent organization. Terrell, the venerable first president of the NACW, had mixed feelings about the new organization. She told the gathering that “Theoretically I believe everything that has been said. But I can’t see how this organization can help. I do not see how the mistakes made by other groups will not be made by this one.”

Charlotte Hawkins Brown accurately gauged the NACW response, immediately delivered by Waring. Waring criticized and impugned the motives of Bethune and the founding members of the NCNW. Responding to Waring’s criticism, Brown stated that the NACW had “so devoted itself to politics that it could do nothing constructive. The main idea has been to elect a president.” Brown argued that the NACW had become “a political machine, a ballyhoo for section[alism].” She pointed out that there was no discussion of issues related to the place and problem of women in American life, and that no committees were appointed to investigate issues concerning African-American women.


History

Our Founders

Sitting: Phyllis Jenkins, Lauranne Sams, Betty Smith Williams and Ethelrine Shaw.
Standing: Gloria Rookard, Betty Jo Davidson, Mary Harper, Doris Wilson
Mattiedna K. Johnson, Phyllis Davis, Mattie Watkins, and Florrie Jefferson.


THE 70&rsquoS: THE BEGINNING YEARS

During the late 1960&rsquos and early 1970&rsquos, the climate for blacks throughout urban America was one of coming together to express pride in their identity, to demand equality, to fight against racism and discrimination and to seek power locally and nationally. During this era, hope, optimism and a commitment to improving the quality of life for blacks were evident across the nation. While the issue of civil rights had been on the agenda of several civil rights organizations, such as the NAACP and the National Urban League, for many years, the events of the late 60&rsquos and early 70&rsquos crystallized the issue for most black Americans. The Civil Rights Movement was the primary impetus that moved black people from all professions and all walks of life to action. Black nurses were no exception.

In 1968 and 1969, black nurse leaders in Los Angeles and San Francisco, respectively, who had visions of a better health care system for black people, where black nurses and other nurses of color played a prominent role in that system. They took action and founded the Council of Black Nurses, Los Angeles and the Bay Area Black Nurses Association. Meeting the challenges in Los Angeles were two visionary leaders, Betty Smith Williams and Barbara Johnson. A year later, black nurses in the San Francisco area were organized under the dynamic leadership of Florence A. Stroud and Carlessia Hussein in San Francisco. In 1970, the Los Angeles and San Francisco Bay Area black Nurses Association met and planned the first statewide conference of black nurses. The conference attracted black nurses from places as far away as Miami, Florida and New York City. (Williams,1976).

The primary goals of the two associations were to unite black nurses to influence health care services for black people and to promote the inclusion of blacks in nursing education and nursing leadership positions. Three years later, due to the influence of some of the same nurse leaders from California, New York City, Indiana, and Ohio, these two goals became the cornerstone for the founding of the National Black Nurses Association.

The founding of the National Black Nurses Association (NBNA) in 1971 marked a significant milestone in the history of black nurses in the United States, particularly in relation to their association with the American Nurses Association (ANA). Twenty years after the dissolution of the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses (NACGH), which marked the end of one era in the fight of black nurses for equality and access to membership in ANA, there emerged again an urgent need for another national nursing organization with a primary goal of placing the black nurse in the mainstream of professional nurses. Although NACGN Chi Eta Phi Nursing Sorority had made tremendous inroads in removing some of the barriers for membership in ANA, black nurses in the late 60&rsquos and early 70&rsquos still had very little presence and influence in the leadership of the American Nurses Association. (Carnegie, 1986). Furthermore, black nurses who were members of ANA felt that their unique needs, as well as the serious health care needs of black people, were not being adequately addressed by ANA. Realizing that this situation was no longer acceptable, black nurses attending the 47 th convention of the American Nurses Association in Miami, Florida in 1970, &ldquocaucused&rdquo to discuss these issues, as well as to identify and discuss other common interests and concerns.

A critical issue identified by this group of courageous black nurses was the need to develop a systematic way of maintaining contact with each other and to identify other black nurses interested in discussing common goals, problems, needs, and ideas. This caucus session resulted in the establishment of a Steering Committee, chaired by Dr. Lauranne Sams. It was her charge to spearhead the effort of identifying ways to keep in touch with the nurses present at the Miami meeting and to seek ways for future dialogue with other black nurses. A year later, on December 18-19, 1971, 18 black nurses from across the country met at the home of Dr. Mary Harper, in Cleveland, Ohio. They unanimously voted to approve the following motion made by Betty Smith Williams: &ldquoI move that we establish the National Black Nurses Association.&rdquo

This historic occasion was the beginning of the National Black Nurses Association as the professional organization for all black nurses across the nation! Over a meal of fried chicken and other potluck delicacies (as recently told by Dr. Mary Harper at NBNA&rsquos 23 rd Annual Institute and Conference), the following black nurses laid the foundation for the establishment of the National Black Nurses Association: Dr. Lauranne Sams, Betty Jo Davidson, Gertrude Baker, Barbara Garner, Dr. Mary Harper, Mattiedna Kelly, Phyllis Jenkins, Florrie Jefferson, Judy Jourdain, Geneva Norman, Betty Smith Williams, Etherlrine Shaw, Anita Small, Doris A. Wilson, and Gloria Rookard.

Interim officers were elected and committee chairs were selected from the above group of black nurses. Additionally, the many tasks needed to establish the organization as a formal entity were identified and assigned. The following officers and committee chairmen of the Interim Steering Committee were selected:

The founding members of the National Black Nurses Association recognized that in order to make a difference in the quality of life in our communities, black nurses across the nation had to take the lead. Through the founders&rsquo collective vision, persistence and commitment, all black nurses now had an organization whose primary reason for being was to improve the health status of black people in the United States of America.


MISSION, ORGANIZATION AND STRUCTURE

As with any new organization the beginning years of the National Black Nurses Association were devoted to developing and agreeing upon an appropriate philosophy and mission, organizational structure, Constitution and By-laws and operating procedures.

Officers, committee chairs and other founding members worked diligently to conceptualize and reach consensus on the philosophy, purposes and objectives for the organization. Only two months after the first historic meeting in Cleveland, the founding members had agreed on the philosophical statement, goals and objectives as well as the initial &ldquo charter donation &ldquo of $10,000 per member in preparation for formalizing the national association.

On February 28, 1972, letters from Dr. Lauranne Sams were sent to friends and colleagues of the newly formed National Black Nurses Association, clearly describing the seriousness of the founders in forging ahead to make the association a reality for black nurses. Included in the historic letter announcing the establishment of the national Black Nurses Association was the following Statement of Philosophy and Purposes and Objectives:

Provision for the enjoyment of optimal health is the birthright of every American. Major health interest groups and governmental agencies believe this and move to act on it for the betterment of the nation.

Yet, Black Americans, along with other minority groups in our society, are by design or neglect, excluded from the means to achieve access to the health mainstream of America.

Since the above is true, we as Black nurses have established a National organization to investigate, define, and determine what the health care needs of Black Americans are, and to implement change to make available to Black Americans and other minorities health care commensurate to that of the larger society.

Black nurses have the understanding, knowledge, interest, concern and experience to make a significant difference in the health care statues of the Black community.

In order to implement the above philosophy, the founders agreed upon the following purposes and objectives for the national association.

PURPOSES and OBJECTIVES

Define and determine nursing care for black consumers for optimum quality of care acting as their advocates.

Act as a change agent in restructuring existing institutions and/or helping to establish institutions to suit our needs.

Serve as the national nursing body to influence legislation and policies that affect Black people and work cooperatively and collaboratively with other health workers to this end.

Conduct, analyze and publish research to increase the body of knowledge about health care and the health needs of blacks.

Compile and maintain a national Directory of Black Nurses to assist with the dissemination of information regarding black nurses and nursing on national an local levels by the use of all media.

Set standards and guidelines for the quality education of black nurses on all levels by providing consultation to nursing faculties and by monitoring for proper utilization and placement of black nurses.

Recruit, counsel and assist black persons interested in nursing to insure a constant procession of blacks in the field.

Be the vehicle for unification of black nurses of varied age groups, educational levels and geographic locations to insure continuity and flow of our common heritage.

Collaborate with other black groups to compile archives relevant to the historical, current, and future activities of black nurses.

Provide the impetus and means for black nurses to write and publish on an individual or collaborative basis.


Over Twenty-five years later, the above philosophy and purposes and goals continue to guide the work of the National Black Nurses Association.

The founding members also determined that a national organization designed primarily to unify all black nurses across the nation for the betterment of health care for black people should be inclusive in its membership. Recognizing that a major concern of the organization was to increase the number of black nurses in the country, the founders believed that incorporating all levels of black nurses into the organization would place them in a better position to influence all nursing education programs in which black students were enrolled, as well as the caliber of all nursing services provided to black consumers. Therefore, from the very beginning, membership was open to registered nurses, licensed vocational/practical nurses and nursing students. At this time, annual membership dues for RN&rsquos and LPN&rsquos/LVN&rsquos were $10.00 and $2.00 for nursing students, and was included in the first NBNA membership brochure designed by Gloria Rookard, Membership Chair.

MOVING TOWARD INCORPORATION!

During the Spring and Summer months in 1972, members of the NBNA Steering Committee continued to meet to address issues that needed to be resolved and tasks that had to be completed in preparation for formal recognition as a not-for-profit corporation. Betty Smith Williams, Interim Chairman of the Constitution and By-laws Committee had drafted the first copy of the Constitution and By-laws in April, 1972.

Additionally, members of NBNA were busy preparing to participate in various symposia planned for black nurses attending the ANA Convention, which was held in Detroit, Michigan during the first week of May 1972. Notes from the &ldquoSummary of Symposia for Black Nurses &ldquoindicate that were three very successful symposia, spearheaded and planned by black nurses who voluntarily contributed their time, effort and finances to make the symposia happen .At the first symposium, black nurses from New York enthusiastically reported how they had come away from the 1970 ANA Convention in Miami inspired and motivated to action. In their discussion of the evolvement of the New York Black Nurses Association, which was loosely formed in Spring, 1971, members forcefully pointed out that: &ldquoPandas from China were better housed, fed and cared for than Black Americans and that the USA passes out moon rocks instead of bread.&rdquo Deeply concerned about such inequities, in October, 1971, the New York, BNA held its first annual conference with the theme: &ldquoThe Unliberated Black Nurse Community.&rdquo

Other speakers during this first symposium included Congressman Charles C. Diggs, Jr., from Michigan&rsquos 13 th Congressional District and the first Chairman of the Congressional Black Caucus. Congressman Diggs reported on the National Black Political Convention held in Gary, Indiana, in March, 1972, that brought together over 10,000 blacks from across the country. His advice to the black nurses was as follows: &ldquoWe must have common goals and purposes which should be the reason for organized black nurses, because the white agenda has failed in terms of the black perspective.

The second symposium focused on issues related to enhancing the recruitment, retention and progression of black students in nursing education programs. Speakers included: Arthur Grist, National Chairman of the Black Caucus of the American Public Health Association E. Lorraine Baugh, who, at that time was the Executive Director of Nursing Education Opportunities in Boston, Massachusetts, Doris Mosley, Research Associate at Teachers College at Columbia University, Anita Small, representing the newly formed Miami Black Nursing Association, and Betty Smith Williams, the founding president of the Council of Black Nurses, Los Angeles. It is important to note that at the symposium, the Miami Black Nurses Association gave a donation to NBNA to aid in organizing all black nurses into a cohesive national body.

It was during the final symposium, which was held on May 4, 1972 that the structure for the National Black Nurses Association began to emerge. The NBNA Steering Committee expanded and individuals in the audience were divided into regional groups fro discussion and action strategies for organizing locally. Phyllis Jenkins from New York City was assigned to the Northeast group, Anita Small, from Miami, convened nurses from the southeast, and Ethelrine Shaw and Dr. Lauranne Sams took charge of nurses from the Midwest area. Gloria Smith volunteered to convene nurses from the Southwest and Betty Smith Williams agreed to lead nurses from the West Coast. It was determined that through the regional areas, black nurses would be receiving feedback and would have the opportunity for direct input in planning for regional and national meetings and program activities.

It is important to note here that during this same time, several of our founding members were also pushing for greater representation and involvement of blacks and other minorities in the programs of the American Nurses Association (ANA). Through their diligence and efforts, the ANA 1972 House of Delegates passed a resolution mandating the establishment of the Affirmative Action Task Force. Ms. Ethelrine Shaw was appointed Chairperson and Dr. Lauranne Sams, Betty Smith Williams and Janice E. Ruffin were appointed Task Force members. The specific goal of the Affirmative Action Task Force was to develop an action plan and program to ensure effective and ongoing participation of black and other minorities in the total program of ANA (Affirmative Action in Action, American Nurse Association, 1974). Participating in this very important forum provided our founding members with the unique opportunity and the support to go about the business of establishing the National Balck Nurses Association.

During August 5 and 6, 1972, the NBNA Steering Committee met in Chicago, Illinois to discuss operational procedures, Constitution and By-laws, public relations activities, regional and national program activities, membership promotion, funding issues and, most importantly, incorporation.

One month later, on September 6, 1972, in Canton, Ohio, Betty Jo Davison, Gloria M. Rookard and Doris A. Wilson, appeared before Cuff C. Brogdon, Notary Public, for the State of Ohio, and signed the official Articles of Incorporation of the National Black Nurses Association, Inc.! The following members are the original trustees of the National Black Nurses Association: Dr. Lauranne Sams, Dr. Mary Harper, Mattie Johnson, Betty Jo Davison, Gloria Rookard, Ethelrine Shaw, Betty Smith Williams and Doris Wilson.


The History of the National Association of Colored Womens Clubs, Inc‪.‬

In highlighting the history of the oldest black womens organization in the United States, The History of the National Association of Colored Womens Clubs, Inc., written by scholar Dr. Charles Wesley, provides a comprehensive insight into the historical achievements and activities of the organization from its creation to 1984.
The book offers an interesting history of how the organization evolved and functioned nationwide into one of the most respectable black organization.
It is highly recommended for readers interested in understanding the role of black women in uplifting the black community through community service involvement with programs focusing on childcare, education, and social services. The clubwomen established local, state, and regional chapters nationwide. The History of the National Association of Colored Womens Clubs, Inc., utilizes the organizations conference reports, minutes, and National Notespublication, as primary sources to depict how the clubs carried out their goals and operated in society to make a difference.
The voices of the pioneer women in the National Association of Colored Womens Clubs, Inc., can be envisioned by reading this pivotal work. Their achievements are noteworthy in our history. They have inspired women in the organization to continue to be involved in carrying out its mission by upholding its motto, lifting as we climb. This book prepares the foundation for the next edition focusing on the history of the organization to the present.


This sweeping account begins in the 19th century, with the discovery of nuclear fission, and continues to World War Two and the Americans’ race to beat Hitler’s Nazis. That competition launched the Manhattan Project and the nearly overnight construction of a vast military-industrial complex that culminated in the fateful dropping of the first bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Reading like a character-driven suspense novel, the book introduces the players in this saga of physics, politics, and human psychology—from FDR and Einstein to the visionary scientists who pioneered quantum theory and the application of thermonuclear fission, including Planck, Szilard, Bohr, Oppenheimer, Fermi, Teller, Meitner, von Neumann, and Lawrence.

From nuclear power’s earliest foreshadowing in the work of H.G. Wells to the bright glare of Trinity at Alamogordo and the arms race of the Cold War, this dread invention forever changed the course of human history, and The Making of The Atomic Bomb provides a panoramic backdrop for that story.

On a winter day in 1903, in the Outer Banks of North Carolina, two brothers—bicycle mechanics from Dayton, Ohio—changed history. But it would take the world some time to believe that the age of flight had begun, with the first powered machine carrying a pilot.

Orville and Wilbur Wright were men of exceptional courage and determination, and of far-ranging intellectual interests and ceaseless curiosity. When they worked together, no problem seemed to be insurmountable. Wilbur was unquestionably a genius. Orville had such mechanical ingenuity as few had ever seen. That they had no more than a public high school education and little money never stopped them in their mission to take to the air. Nothing did, not even the self-evident reality that every time they took off, they risked being killed.

Under the leadership of her fearless skipper, Captain Gene Fluckey, the Barb sank the greatest tonnage of any American sub in World War II. At the same time, the Barb did far more than merely sink ships-she changed forever the way submarines stalk and kill their prey.

This is a gripping adventure chock-full of "you-are-there" moments. Fluckey has drawn on logs, reports, letters, interviews, and a recently discovered illegal diary kept by one of his torpedomen. And in a fascinating twist, he uses archival documents from the Japanese Navy to give its version of events.

The unique story of the Barb begins with its men, who had the confidence to become unbeatable. Each team helped develop innovative ideas, new tactics, and new strategies. All strove for personal excellence, and success became contagious. Instead of lying in wait under the waves, the USS Barb pursued enemy ships on the surface, attacking in the swift and precise style of torpedo boats. She was the first sub to use rocket missiles and to creep up on enemy convoys at night, joining the flank escort line from astern, darting in and out as she sank ships up the column.
Surface-cruising, diving only to escape, "Luckey Fluckey" relentlessly patrolled the Pacific, driving his boat and crew to their limits. There can be no greater contrast to modern warfare's long-distance, videogame style of battle than the exploits of the captain and crew of the USS Barb, where they sub, out of ammunition, actually rammed an enemy ship until it sank.

A WASHINGTON POST TOP 10 BOOK OF THE YEAR * A NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER and NEW YORK TIMES NOTABLE BOOK OF 2018

“A constant pleasure to read…Everybody who loves books should check out The Library Book.” —The Washington Post

“CAPTIVATING…DELIGHTFUL.” —Christian Science Monitor * “EXQUISITELY WRITTEN, CONSISTENTLY ENTERTAINING.” —The New York Times * “MESMERIZING…RIVETING.” —Booklist (starred review)

A dazzling love letter to a beloved institution—and an investigation into one of its greatest mysteries—from the bestselling author hailed as a “national treasure” by The Washington Post.

On the morning of April 29, 1986, a fire alarm sounded in the Los Angeles Public Library. As the moments passed, the patrons and staff who had been cleared out of the building realized this was not the usual fire alarm. As one fireman recounted, “Once that first stack got going, it was ‘Goodbye, Charlie.’” The fire was disastrous: it reached 2000 degrees and burned for more than seven hours. By the time it was extinguished, it had consumed four hundred thousand books and damaged seven hundred thousand more. Investigators descended on the scene, but more than thirty years later, the mystery remains: Did someone purposefully set fire to the library—and if so, who?

Weaving her lifelong love of books and reading into an investigation of the fire, award-winning New Yorker reporter and New York Times bestselling author Susan Orlean delivers a mesmerizing and uniquely compelling book that manages to tell the broader story of libraries and librarians in a way that has never been done before.

In The Library Book, Orlean chronicles the LAPL fire and its aftermath to showcase the larger, crucial role that libraries play in our lives delves into the evolution of libraries across the country and around the world, from their humble beginnings as a metropolitan charitable initiative to their current status as a cornerstone of national identity brings each department of the library to vivid life through on-the-ground reporting studies arson and attempts to burn a copy of a book herself reflects on her own experiences in libraries and reexamines the case of Harry Peak, the blond-haired actor long suspected of setting fire to the LAPL more than thirty years ago.


Watch the video: Four Women: Lisa Simone, Dianne Reeves, Lizz Wright, Angélique Kidjo


Comments:

  1. Rylee

    Moscow was under construction not at once.

  2. Nelmaran

    This is simply incomparable :)

  3. Cadda

    wonderfully, this opinion of value

  4. Pandarus

    This is exactly



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