Praskovia Ivanovskia in 1914

Praskovia Ivanovskia in 1914


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Praskovia Ivanovskaia, the daughter of a priest, was born in Tula, Russia, in 1853. After the death of her mother she was educated at the local boarding school

Praskovia's older brother, Vasilii Ivanovskaia, was a medical student who became a follower of Sergi Nechayev. He provided Praskovia with radical literature and she distributed at school. This resulted in her being arrested but she was released without charge.

After leaving school Ivanovskia moved to Odessa where she immediately made contact with other radicals living in the city. She distributed socialist propaganda to factory workers during the day and provided literacy lessons in the evenings.

In the summer of 1876 Ivanovskaia found work as a farm labourer in the Ukraine. The main objective was to spread information about the Land and Liberty movement. However, she was so exhausted at the end of the day's work that she had little energy for propaganda work.

In October, 1879, the Land and Liberty group split into two. One faction, Black Repartition, rejected terrorism and supported a socialist propaganda campaign among workers and peasants. However, Ivanovskia became a member of People's Will, the faction who favoured a policy of terrorism.

Ivanovskaia was briefly imprisoned by the authorities and after her release she lived in an émigré colony of Russian radicals in Rumania.

In 1880 Ivanovskaia returned to Russia where she worked in an underground printing plant producing propaganda material for People's Will. One of her jobs was the printing of the leaflet that explained why the group had assassinated Alexander II.

Following the death of the Tsar several members of the People's Will were arrested. On 3rd April, 1881, Sophia Perovskaya, Andrei Zhelyabov, Nikolai Kibalchich, Nikolai Rysakov and Timofei Mikhailov were hanged for the crime.

Ivanovskaia and sixteen other members of People's Will were also arrested and charged with being involved in the assassination of Alexander II. Ivanovskaia was sentenced to death but this was later commuted to hard labour for life.

After serving fifteen years in prison Ivanovskaia was released from prison and sent to Siberia. In 1903 Ivanovskaia escaped and went into hiding. She joined the Socialist Revolutionary Party and became involved in the activities of the SR Combat Organization. In 1904 she took part in the assassination of the Minister of the Interior, Vyacheslav Plehve.

Betrayed by Evno Azef, Ivanovskaia was arrested and imprisoned. However, as a result of the 1905 Revolution, Nicholas II granted an amnesty to a large number of political prisoners and Ivanovskaia was released.

Praskovia Ivanovskia

1. Was highly critical of Nicholas II and the autocracy.

2. Wanted Russia to have universal suffrage.

3. Wanted the Russian government to allow freedom of expression and an end to political censorship of newspapers and books.

4. Believed that democracy could only be achieved in Russia by the violent overthrow of Nicholas II and the autocracy.

5. Was strongly opposed to Russia going to war with Austria-Hungary and Germany.

6. Believed that if Russia did go to war with Austria-Hungary and Germany the Mensheviks, Bolsheviks and the Socialist Revolutionaries should try to persuade the Russian soldiers to use their weapons to overthrow Nicholas II.

All the women workers were illiterate. They would have been eager to learn, but when was there time to teach them? After a brief dinner, they caught up on the hours of sleep they'd missed in the morning by curling up on the filthy ropes. By the time we went home, the sun was the thinnest of crescents, sinking into the sea. On holidays, the women couldn't study in their quarters even if they wanted to. How, then, could I conduct propaganda among these women, who were so cut off from everyone and everything? Perhaps if I'd remained at the factory longer than two or three months, I might have been able to get something going: a few girls were becoming interested in reading and had begun to drop in at my apartment, and in time I might have been able to propagandize and organize them. But I found conditions at the factory too difficult and depressing to continue working there.

On our first day, we joined the other women workers in some pretty filthy work: shearing sheep. We performed this monotonous task in a large covered shed, saturated with the smell of sheep. Some of us sheared, while others picked burrs and all sorts of trash that had gotten caught in the wool.

We were soon transferred from the foul shed to a distant work site in the broad steppe, the realm of green fields. We were assigned to hay mowing.

At four in the morning, as the sun's rays were just beginning to spill over the steppe, the overseer would wake us, kicking the legs of those who wouldn't get up immediately. At the camp, the steward assigned us to the various sectors. In the morning, we froze from the bitterly cold dew, which drenched our clothing up to the waist. Staggering along, still half asleep, we worked as automatically as robots, gradually warming up a bit.

At ten, we returned to camp for breakfast, which lasted around half an hour. Despite the camp hubbub, some people preferred to nap instead of eating. Our food was of rather poor quality - very plain and unappetizing. In the morning, they cooked us a watery gruel made from wheat and water with a dose of salt, or buckwheat dumplings as big as cobblestones - one or two of these would satisfy the hunger of even the greatest glutton. The meal was poured into a wooden trough, from which you'd pull the dumplings with long, pointed splinters. We got the same modest fare for lunch and dinner.

After our brief breakfast, we returned to work. As the day wore on, the heat became so intense that you wanted to take shelter in any available patch of shade. The sun was so strong that the backs of most of the newly arrived vagabonds were practically covered with swollen blisters; later, as their skin toughened up, the burns went away. We women were often so exhausted from the heat that we lost much of our modesty: when we reaped and bound the hay, we wore only our shirts, since that made it a lot easier to work.

During the busy season, there were no set limits to the work day: if the steward wished, it could last for sixteen hours or more, with only an hour off for lunch. Actually, the work itself was lively and gay, although Galina and I found it difficult and alien.

In the evening, after the sun had set, we returned to camp. The fire would be going and dinner waiting. Some people filled their stomachs with the plain, unsatisfying food and fell asleep on the spot, scattered around camp. Everyone slept under the open sky, harassed by mosquitoes and subject to the bites of other enemies as well: the black spiders, whose venom could make your whole body swell up.

At first, people found it rather strange to hear ordinary girls - manual labourers like themselves - speak of many things they'd never heard or even thought about. They became most interested when the conversation touched upon the land: this immensely important topic was dear to every heart. Everyone was united on this issue; they all felt the need for land most acutely, and this provided us a way to reach even the simplest peasant.

However, we didn't actually conduct socialist propaganda; it was clear that we were still an alien, incomprehensible element in a world we scarcely knew.

Of course, our difficulties were compounded by the repressive political system of Russia and the peasants' own fear. They reacted to all radical talk with caution, distrust, and sometimes the most natural incomprehension. Frequently our evening talks ended with the peasants saying: "That's our fate - so it's been written", or, "We're born - we'll die."

In fact, we were rarely able to talk at all: after the day's work, our limbs shrieked with weariness, our exhausted bodies demanded rest and peace.

In the intervals between printing jobs, we visited Sofhia Perovskaya's apartment. She shared the place with Andrei Zhelyabov, and when we stayed late, we saw him, too. To us, the visits to Perovskaia were like a refreshing shower. Sophia always gave us a warm, friendly welcome; she acted as if we were the ones with stimulating ideas and news to share, rather than the reverse. In her easy and natural way, she painstakingly helped us to make sense of the complicated muddle of everyday life and the vacillations of public opinion. She told us about the party's activities among workers, about various circles and organizations, and about the expansion of the revolutionary movement among previously untouched social groups. Perovskaia spoke calmly, without a trace of sentimentality, but there was no hiding the joy that lit up her face and shone in her crinkled, smiling eyes - it was as if she were taking about a child of hers who had recovered from an illness.

The Kara prison most resembles a tumbledown stable. The dampness and cold are ferocious; there's no heat at all in the cells, on;y two stoves in the corridor. The cell doors are kept open day and night - otherwise we would freeze to death. In winter, a thick layer of ice forms on the walls of the corner cells and at night, the undersides of the straw mattresses get covered with hoarfrost.

Everyone congregates in the corridor in winter, because it's closer to the stoves and you get a warm draft. Since the cells farthest from the stove are completely uninhabitable, the people who live in them carry their beds into the corridor.

I've been one of the temporary residents of the corridor, and I can say that the accommodations weren't particularly comfortable or quiet. Cooking, bread baking, and all sorts of washing were done there: at the table, someone would be reading periodicals, while right next to her, there would be someone making chopped meat for the sick people or sloshing underwear around in a trough.

Last winter, however, we drew up a constitution for ourselves. Since the cold made it impossible to do any studying in the cells, and since the bustle in the corridor would be used exclusively for reading. Anyone who wanted to strike up a conversation had to move off into one of the distant cells and speak softly, since the partitions were thin and loud talk could be heard everywhere.

The conclusion of this affair gave me some satisfaction - finally the man who had taken so many victims had been brought to his inevitable end, so universally desired.


Ideological Flaws in She Defends the Motherland

This memo from the Party’s Agitprop director finds ideological flaws even in the film that came to emblemize the Soviet people’s commitment to total war. What is interesting here is that most of Aleksandrov’s criticisms were ignored, and the scenes that he identifies as “implausible” and flawed were some of the most memorable in the film that was quickly released to the public. Two of them, the wedding and Pasha’s speech, are featured in the Video section of this essay.

Original Source: RGASPI, f. 17. op. 125. d. 213. ll. 12-13.

From: Supervisor of Propaganda and Agitation CC, CPSU(b) G.F. Alexandrov
To: Secretary CC CPSU (b) A. A. Andreeva
Re: Report on the Film She Defends the Motherland

About the movie She Defends the Motherland

(Screenwriters I. Bondin, M. Bleiman, Director F. Ermler, starring actress Maretskii, Alma-Ata Studio)

The film tells about the struggle of Soviet partisans against the German invaders. The husband of young collective farmer Praskovia Ivanovna is killed on the Soviet-German front, and the German invaders murder her child before her eyesr. Praskovia Ivanovna becomes the head of a guerrilla unit. Under her leadership, the guerrillas fight against the occupiers. Praskovia Ivanovna is captured by the Germans. She is sentenced to be hanged. Before she can be executed, guerrillas attack the Germans and release their commander.

The filmmakers made it their goal to create a heroic image of the Soviet partisan-revenger. They were able to show the Soviet people hating the German invaders with all their soul. However, the film has a number of scenes depicting the partisan movement in a simplistic and one-sided manner.

The film’s main heroine Praskovia Ivanovna, a progressive Soviet woman in the authors’ conception, is shown throughout the film to be a heartbroken mother who has lost a child and husband. The viewer feels pity and compassion rather than the idea of her as a conscientious soldier who defends freedom and the independence of the motherland. The film’s director did not show quite convincingly why Praskovia became head of the guerrilla unit.

In the film, some scenes are not plausible. For example, two young people flirting during an important diversionary operation a wedding in the forest headquarters of the partisan detachment, Praskovia Ivanovna’s rhetorical monologue in connection with the false news of the capture of Moscow, the prop-like stage for Praskovia Ivanovna’s execution, and several other scenes. German are portrayed as a bunch of simpletons which the guerrillas can easily smash, armed with clubs and sticks. The film does not portray the harsh conditions of the partisans’ struggle against the Germans.

Implausible and even false seems the scene in the barn when Praskovia allows several women to be shot without revealing herself, as well as the scene of peasants paying taxes to the Germans.

Some of the reported deficiencies can be corrected, others cannot be remedied. In general, the film will be useful. The picture is appropriate for release.

Source: Kino na voine: dokumenty i svidetel’stva, Moscow, Materik, 2008), p. 352.


Support

Immiwork operates as a directory and listing for immigration professionals from around the world. Immiwork makes it faster and easier for Clients to access migration professionals solely based on their preferences. The professionals on this directory are not the employees of Immiwork. Immiwork does not have any sponsorship by, or any affiliation with the governments or regulatory bodies of any country, is not a law firm or immigration firm, is not engaging in a legal or immigration practice and does not act as lawyers or migration agents. Immiwork does not provide legal or immigration advice. Immiwork provides general information, nothing on this site is legal or immigration advice and you cannot rely on it and should always consult a lawyer or a migration agent to get certainty of your legal and immigration rights and obligations.


Kudelli, Praskovia

Born Oct. 14 (26), 1859, in Ekaterinodar, now Krasnodar died May 26, 1944, in Leningrad. Russian revolutionary figure party publicist. Member of the Communist Party from 1903.

The daughter of a doctor, Kudelli was raised in the home of her stepfather, a colonel. She graduated from the Advanced Courses for Women in St. Petersburg. She was part of the stu-dent revolutionary movement from 1878, gravitating to the People&rsquos Will. She began teaching in 1893 in an evening and Sunday school, where she met N. K. Krupskaia and V. I. Lenin. She maintained her friendship with the Ul&rsquoianov family all her life. She began contributing to Iskra (The Spark) in 1901.

In 1903, Kudelli became a member of the Tver&rsquo committee of the RSDLP and belonged to the Tula committee in 1904&ndash05. She took part in the Revolution of 1905&ndash07: as a delegate to the Tammerfors Party Conference in December 1905 and as a member of the St. Petersburg committee of Bolsheviks in 1906. She worked for Pravda in 1912 and was an organizer the following year of the first observance of International Women&rsquos Day in Russia. Kudelli was on the editorial board ofRabotnitsa (Working Woman), which she prepared for publication in 1914. She was subjected to repression a number of times.

After the February Revolution of 1917, Kudelli worked for the newspaper Izvestiia and then for the newspaper Pravda. She was a delegate to the Sixth Congress of the RSDLP (Bolshevik) in 1917 and participated in the October Revolution of 1917. In 1922 she became director of the Petrograd Istpart (Commission on Party History) and editor of Krasnaia letopis* (Red Chronicle) she was also a member of the editorial boards ofRabotnitsa and Rabotnitsa i krest&rsquoianka (Working Woman and Peasant Woman).

Kudelli was a delegate to the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Congresses of the ACP (Bolshevik). She wrote on the history of the party. She was awarded the Order of Lenin.


FIVE SISTERS: Women Against the Tsar

Vera Figner, Elizaveta Kovalskaia, Vera Zasulich, Olga Liubatovich, Praskovia Ivanovskaia--five women whose names will be unfamiliar, whose selfless struggle against Tsarist absolutism made but little impact on history. For a decade they were the ""Moscow Amazons,"" soul of the populist Social Revolutionaries, young women who abandoned the comfort and privilege of the upper class to ""go to the people."" Through the 1870's and 1880's they lived a clandestine underground existence, renouncing family life, hunted by the Okhrana, jailed in Russia's fortress-prisons, exiled to Siberia. In the early stages of the campaign they flocked into the farms and factories of Russia to work alongside the peasants, sometimes fourteen hours a day later terrorism became a full-time activity. Vera Figner was among those who helped make the bombs that finally killed Alexander II. The journals of these young women--four of them published in English for the first time--are as passionate and ascetic as their lives. Feminists before they were revolutionaries, an absolute dedication and seriousness of purpose is the hallmark of their writing and yet, for all their unquenchable idealism and inexhaustible stamina, they realized from time to time that their impact was pitifully small. A remarkable document, which has, at moments, an uncomfortably contemporary ring.


Five Sisters: Women Against the Tsar (NIU Series in Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies)

This specific ISBN edition is currently not available.

Violent movements opposing existing political orders erupted throughout nineteenth-century Europe, but nowhere was this revolutionary impulse made more dramatically visible than in Russia. "Five Sisters" - first published in 1975 - presents English translations of the memoirs of five of Russia's most renowned female revolutionaries - Vera Figner, Vera Zasulich, Praskovia Ivanovskaia, Olga Liubatovich, and Elizaveta Kovalskaia. Engel and Rosenthal have added a new introduction and an updated list of suggested readings. A welcome reboot of a widely read classic, students and specialists of Russian history and women's studies will find this collection to be a fascinating record of tumultuous times.

"synopsis" may belong to another edition of this title.

Barbara Engel is Distinguished Professor at the University of Colorado, Boulder. She is the author of Between the Fields and the City: Women, Work and Family in Russia, 1861-1914, Women in Russia: 1700-2000, and most recently, Breaking the Ties that Bound: The Politics of Marital Strife in Late Imperial Russia, as well as of numerous articles. Clifford Rosenthal worked for ten years as a translator of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia. Subsequently, he led a national association of credit unions serving low-income communities for more than three decades, twice consulting with the Russian credit union movement as a member of an international delegation.


Career

Praskovia was one of the best opera singers in eighteenth-century Russia. She was born into the family of a serf smith by the name of Ivan Gorbunov (a.k.a. Kovalyov) probably on the estate of Voshchazhnikovo in the province of Yaroslavl. Praskovia and her family belonged to the Sheremetevs, one of the richest noble families in Russia at the time. As a young girl she moved with her family to the estate of Kuskovo outside Moscow. Soon thereafter she was taken from her family to serve as a chambermaid to Princess Martha Dolgorukaya, a relative of her master, Count Pyotr Sheremetev, who lived in the manor house.

Blessed with a fine voice, Praskovia was trained to be a singer in the opera company then being put together by Count Pyotr and his son, Nikolai Sheremetev. She debuted in 1779 on the stage of the serf theatre at Kuskovo in the role of the servant Gubert in the comic opera L'Amitié à l'épreuve by André Grétry. Following her success, Praskovia was given the leading role of Belinda in Antonio Sacchini's opera La colonie. In this 1780 performance the actress for the first time appeared under the stage name Zhemchugova, "The Pearl", (zhemchug means "pearl" in Russian). The other stars of the company were also given new names: Arina "The Sapphire", Fekla "The Turquoise", Tatyana "The Garnet", Nikolai "The Marble", Andrei "The Flint", etc.

After the role of Belinda, Praskovia was promoted to the position of the first actress of the theatre. By the age of 17, she could read and write French and Italian fluently, played the harp and clavichord, and was acknowledged by her contemporaries for her operatic and dramatic abilities.

In a career that spanned almost two decades, Praskovia performed in over a dozen operas, including Monsigny's Le déserteur and Aline, reine de Golconde, Paisiello's L'infante de Zamora, Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Le Devin du village, and Piccinni's La buona figliuola maritata.

Her most important role was Eliane in Grétry's opera Les Mariages samnites. Assuming the part for the first time in 1785, Praskovia sang Eliane for 12 years — a first in the history of serf theatre. In 1787 Praskovia sang the role of Eliane at Kuskovo for Empress Catherine II and her suite. Catherine was so impressed by her performance that she requested to meet Praskovia and later gave her a diamond ring.

In the mid-1780s, Praskovya became the mistress of Count Nikolai Sheremetev. Nikolai was the impresario of the family serf theater, and he had helped train Praskovia over the years, eventually falling in love with the young star of the troupe. The circumstances surrounding the early years of their relationship, like so much of Praskovia's life, are unknown. After the death of Nikolai's father in 1788, Nikolai and Praskovia set up a private household in a secluded corner of the Kuskovo estate. Their unorthodox relationship soon became the subject of gossip among aristocratic society.

In 1795 Praskovia, Nikolai, and the theatre troupe moved from Kuskovo to Ostankino, a brilliant new palace constructed north of Moscow with a large theatre intended for large-scale operas and immense balls. The year 1795 was marked by the premiere of the opera Zelmira and Smeloy, or the Capture of Izmail (Osip Kozlovsky, text by Pavel Potemkin) Praskovia acted in the role of the captive Turkish woman Zelmira). Praskovia performed here for Stanisław August Poniatowski, the last king of Poland.


No customer reviews

Review this product

Most helpful customer reviews on Amazon.com

I am appalled at this book that is explicit in its philosophy of violence. I was told by an associate that I should read this. I am not a socialist and at this point realize that, in a country like Russia, men will continue to want to control their destiny. The point in the long, long introduction that hit home with me was that violence was the only way to get anyone's attention.
I cannot comprehend why a privileged woman would sacrifice someone's life to make a point, no matter how terrible times were. I guess I am just too "privileged" myself, by living in a country with a certain amount of free speech.

This book does make a point. The point these stories make for me is that we had better appreciate - even with all of our flaws, what a great country of opportunity we have and get our act together. The food industries and the pharmaceutical industries are running rampant in America and endangering people who innocently still believe that all is well and that food additives are not dangerous and damaging to the brains of children, especially. The belief that a pill will fix everything. we are headed where with the "leader" (translate that as puppet) we have.

America, you might want to read this book, not for seeing how brave five women were, but to further understand the threats of socialism and bullheadedness of controlling leaders in other countries.

Oh, and as a parting thought. what good was it to kill Alexander II when that only put his son in his place. Granted, someone else took care that the entire family then was eliminated. I can not comprehend how you can kill a living thing, let alone a person, let alone to decimate an entire family, and probably the cute little dog too. It must have been great fun.
Anonymous for obvious reasons


Shchedrin, a political prisoner in Russia (c. 1882).

Summary: A police photo of Shchedrin, half-length portrait, facing slightly right, dressed in convict clothing.

Shchedrin, a school teacher, was one of the political prisoners at the Kara gold mines who, in April, 1882, escaped from prison by digging a tunnel under the prison wall. All were subsequently recaptured and eight prisoners, Shchedrin among them, were permanently chained to wheelbarrows. In July, 1882, all eight were sent to St. Petersburg and imprisoned in the isolation cells at the castle of Schlusselburg.

George Kennan Papers at the Library of Congress.

Praskovia Ivanovskia explained that the cold was a major problem: “The Kara prison most resembles a tumbledown stable. The dampness and cold are ferocious there’s no heat at all in the cells, only two stoves in the corridor. The cell doors are kept open day and night – otherwise we would freeze to death. In winter, a thick layer of ice forms on the walls of the corner cells and at night, the undersides of the straw mattresses get covered with hoarfrost. Everyone congregates in the corridor in winter, because it’s closer to the stoves and you get a warm draft. Since the cells farthest from the stove are completely uninhabitable, the people who live in them carry their beds into the corridor.”


Praskovia Frantsevna Kudelli

Born Oct. 14 (26), 1859, in Ekaterinodar, now Krasnodar died May 26, 1944, in Leningrad. Russian revolutionary figure party publicist. Member of the Communist Party from 1903.

The daughter of a doctor, Kudelli was raised in the home of her stepfather, a colonel. She graduated from the Advanced Courses for Women in St. Petersburg. She was part of the stu-dent revolutionary movement from 1878, gravitating to the People&rsquos Will. She began teaching in 1893 in an evening and Sunday school, where she met N. K. Krupskaia and V. I. Lenin. She maintained her friendship with the Ul&rsquoianov family all her life. She began contributing to Iskra (The Spark) in 1901.

In 1903, Kudelli became a member of the Tver&rsquo committee of the RSDLP and belonged to the Tula committee in 1904&ndash05. She took part in the Revolution of 1905&ndash07: as a delegate to the Tammerfors Party Conference in December 1905 and as a member of the St. Petersburg committee of Bolsheviks in 1906. She worked for Pravda in 1912 and was an organizer the following year of the first observance of International Women&rsquos Day in Russia. Kudelli was on the editorial board ofRabotnitsa (Working Woman), which she prepared for publication in 1914. She was subjected to repression a number of times.

After the February Revolution of 1917, Kudelli worked for the newspaper Izvestiia and then for the newspaper Pravda. She was a delegate to the Sixth Congress of the RSDLP (Bolshevik) in 1917 and participated in the October Revolution of 1917. In 1922 she became director of the Petrograd Istpart (Commission on Party History) and editor of Krasnaia letopis* (Red Chronicle) she was also a member of the editorial boards ofRabotnitsa and Rabotnitsa i krest&rsquoianka (Working Woman and Peasant Woman).

Kudelli was a delegate to the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Congresses of the ACP (Bolshevik). She wrote on the history of the party. She was awarded the Order of Lenin.


Watch the video: WW1 Eastern Front


Comments:

  1. Magis

    What a phrase ... super, great idea

  2. Kyle

    I am finite, I apologize, but in my opinion it is evident.

  3. Vukus

    It also worries me about this issue. Give Where can I find more information on this topic?

  4. Andraemon

    Wacker, it seems to me a brilliant idea



Write a message