At the time of the Latin American wars of independence, the Imperial Spanish army employed men in ranks like Capitán (captain), Sargento (sergeant) and so on, between the King and the lowliest footsoldier. Wikipedia suggests that "Royal Ordinances for the Regime, Discipline, Subordination and Service in his Armies" of 1768 was in place, but the Naopleonic Wars may have occasioned some reforms.
What were the military ranks used by the Spanish Empire?
Spanish Commissioned Ranks
The biography of Joaquín Blake y Joyes on the Napoleonic Series traces his promotion history as:
1774 enrolls as an officer cadet (at 14 years age!)
1775: commissioned as Subteniente de fusileros;
1777: appointed as maestro de cadetes
1781: promoted to Subteniente de granaderos (likely a lateral recognition from a command perspective much as a modern medal for gallantry, though I cannot prove that just now);
1782: promoted to Teniente (likely provisional, as not yet employed in that rank);
1784: promoted to vivo Teniente (ie with an actual posting, and thus pay, at that rank);
1787: promoted to Teniente de granaderos (again likely a lateral move from a strict command perspective);
1791: promoted to Capitán;
1793: promoted to Sargento Mayor (sic - This is a fully commissioned rank; see my history notes below.)
1795: promoted to Teniente Coronel and then to Coronel (likely provisional, as see following); then he first requests retirement (sources differ on whether this was accepted or not), and subsequently requests to be made vivo Coronel rank (ie with both pay and appointment).
1802: promoted to General de brigada;
1810: promoted to Teniente General (skipping Mariscal de campo!);
1811: promoted to Capitán General (a four-star rank until a reorganization of the Spanish ranks in 1999; see below).
Before the modern profusion of ribbons (a 19th century phenomena) it was common to distinguish both officers and other ranks at the battalion level by a lateral promotion into the grenadier company. We see Blake y Joyes being recognized twice with this distinction. It may or may not have included a pay raise.
The rank of Sargento Mayor is at this time the proper title of a fully commissioned rank superior to that of Capitán and inferior to that of Teniente Coronel. Ie it is exactly equivalent to our modern (English) rank of Major and the the modern Spanish rank of Commandante.
The rank of Mariscal de campo is already longstanding in Spanish usage by 1790, directly junior to a Teniente general, unlike the precedence of its literal translation into English as Field Marshal. Likewise in historical Austrian usage the ranks Feldmarschall and Feldmarschallleutnant cannot be assumed to have the same seniority as more modern English and Prussian (German) usage.
From the time of Philip V until a reorganization of 1889, the Spanish style for the two-star rank was Mariscal de campo as noted by the promotion history of Blake y Joyes' contemporary Francisco Javier Castaños:
At 10 years of age, Castaños received the rank of capitán de infantería, which King Carlos III granted him in attention to the merits of his father. He went on to study, as a young officer, [at] the Seminario de Nobles, training that would later be completed at the Academia de Barcelona.
1782: promoted to Sargento Mayor;
1784: promoted to Teniente Coronel;
1789: promoted to Coronal;
1794: promoted to General de brigada;
1795: promoted to Mariscal de campo;
1802: promoted to Teniente General;
1808: promoted to Capitán General.
Spanish Enlisted Ranks
In regards to other ranks, Osprey's Spanish Army of the Napoleonic Wars (1) 1793-1808 (pp 19-20) list the official establishment of Spanish line infantry regiments (in the early 1790's) as:
Based on the cognate names of the modern Spanish ranks I suggest that these other ranks were names as, in increasing seniority:
Carabinier (cavalry only); possibly also Soldado primero (infantry only) though as yet unattested in my research for the late 18th and early 19th century.
Alférez (En: ensign: commissioned cavalry equivalent of Subteniente)
Osprey's Spanish Armies of the Napoleonic Wars notes (pp 17) that the officer ranks were allocated one third each to:
promotion from the ranks (but generally restricted from rising higher than Capitán;
purchase by the middle class; and
purchase by the nobility
although (1) proof of noble descent was supposed to have been provided by all cavalry officers; and (2) virtually all ranks of Coronel and above were held only by those with noble descent (though matrilineal descent several generations back from the Duke of Parma or Duke of Alba was probably sufficient).
Exactly what rank (and where in line of command) the additional appointments sat remains unclear to me for now:
trumpeter (cavalry), kettle drummer (cavalry), or drummer (infantry)
drum major (infantry) or trumpet major (cavalry)
master saddler (cavalry)
Earlier research of mid-19th century British practices suggests that these are appointments with a minimum rank requirement (I'm guessing Cabo primero for most, Sargento for those styled major, master, or requiring higher education) and a small pay supplement.
IE: Why the nomenclature Major recur across enlisted, warranted, and commissioned ranks with varying implied seniority
Without a more specific time period, let's review quickly the history and development of the modern infantry arms' command and organizational structure in Western Europe from say 1568 (start of Eighty Years War) until 1815. I believe this will illustrate the basic pattern that then can be adjusted for national variations between Spain, Britain, France and Prussia.
As we leave the late Medieval period the basic components of an army are a mixture of medieval levies and *mercenary companies. In both of these it had became common to denote the senior enlisted man in each company of about 100 or so men as the (company) Sergeant-Major. Reporting directly to the Captain of the company, he functioned as a chief-of-staff and was the third *officer of the company, after the Captain and his Lieutenant. Larger organization of the army through most of the 15th century remains an ad hoc structure of wings and attack waves, with armies small enough to comfortably travel on a single road.
With the development of pike-and-ball warfare, and larger (professional!) armies, mobility on both attack and defence returns to the battlefield. To facilitate this a more permanent grouping of companies (now usually standardized at 100-120 men) into battle-groups (battalions) develops, with these battalions in turn brigaded (usually three at a time) to provide a two level hierarchy of command and control. Mimicking the historical organization of our companies, these battalions and brigades in turn appoint a Battalion Sergeant-Major (still an enlisted man) and a Brigade Sergeant-Major (now a commissioned officer).
The distinction between rank and title or office is just developing, and the command structure remains quite simple, with each brigade command structure something like this (assuming for discussion three battalions of four companies each):
1 * Colonel (Sp.: Coronel)
1 * Lieutenant Colonel (Sp.: Teniente coronel)
13 * Captain (Sp.: Capitán) - the most senior holding the title of Brigade Sergeant-Major (Sp., eventually: Commandante), acting as chief-of-staff to the Colonel, and commanding the third battalion.
12 * Lieutenant (Sp.: Teniente)
n * Sergeant (Sp.: Sargento)
3 (one per battalion) holding the title of Battalion Sergeant-Major (Sp.: Subofficiel mayor) and acting as chief-of-staff for each battalion with responsibility for logistics of the battalion: ammunition in battle and food on the march.
12 (1 per company) holding the title of Company Sergeant-Major (Sp.: Subteniente), acting as chief-of-staff for each captain with responsibility for discipline and training of the men
The strict assignment of ranks and titles to hierarchical responsibility strictly limits availability of the ranks and titles.
At this time the epithet sergeant still retains its late Medieval euphemism of seniority and command - but that will soon wane as the term becomes restricted to non-commissioned rank.
The new title of Brigade Sergeant-Major is the first with command, in addition to support, responsibility. This also likely relates to the looming drop of the Sergeant from the position name.
At various times the structure above may or may not have a regiment (or *demi-brigade) structure between the brigade and the battalion. This varies by era and nationality, but does not affect the general concept above. It's presence makes brigades about twice as strong.
However our armies of the time are already much larger than a brigade or even a small number of brigades. In some countries (notably United Kingdom and Austro-Hungary) the right to be paid to raise a regiment was sold by the crown, with regimental commissions resold in turn by the Colonels/Inhabers. At a national level the need arose for general officers, those holding commissions directly from the crown and with responsibility and authority over multiple regiments and brigades. (It is best at this time to think of the word general as an adjective rather than, as currently, a noun.)
In English usage there was a single General Officer for each independent command of an army, with a Lieutenant General (Officer) as his second in command and the Sergeant-Major General as his chief-of-staff.
The French regarded, through this time period, all commands above that of a division (General de Division being the equivalent of English Major General) as appointments; so that rank was the highest available.
Strictly speaking the style Marshal of the Empire was always merely a title; but as all the holders uniformly refused to accept orders or direction from any officer not holding it, it became a de facto rank if not a de jure one.
The Spanish modelled it as an upgraded company commanded by a Captain General assisted by a Lieutenant General and a Mariscal de campo (the latter being renamed in 1889, after the French model, as General de división).
The Prussians under Frederick likewise modelled the independent army as (a collection of) companies (ie wings or columns), each commanded by a General der Infanterie, der Cavalerie, or der Artillerie and assisted by a Lieutenant General. (The branch names in the title had no battlefield command significance, but merely signified rank and perhaps the origin of the possessor.) As noted in that link Frederick had no use for the rank of Feldmarschall since that authority was always personally vested in himself.
The Austrians innovate with the Field Marshal assisted by an Lieutenant Field Marshal.
As armies became too large to travel on a single road and are divided into columns (the less flexible precursor of Napoleon's Corps d'Armee), each in turn is the responsibility of a Lieutenant General (or equivalent), with the Austrian cavalry column commanded by a General of Cavalry. However they all (initially) retain the title of Sergeant-Major General as that of the chief-of-staff of the (independent) army. This brings us to the early Napoleonic period, when the Sergeant- prefix is dropped from the commissioned titles to yield:
Brigade Sergeant-Major becomes first Brigade Major and then just Major; and
Sergeant-Major General becomes Major General.
I have made some generalizations here based on the English etymology of the ranks and titles. More complex national (and branch: artillery vs cavalry vs artillery) variations exist. The French (singularly I believe) retain Major General as a title rather than a rank, dating back to the appointment of Berthier as "The Major General of the Grand Army" by Napoleon - with the rank being Generale de Division.
Of import for specific Spanish usage: the rank of Captain General was upgraded in 1999 from a 4-star equivalent to a 5-star equivalent for conformity with NATO usage, with a new 4-star rank of General of the Army (General de Ejército) interceded in its place. Spanish terminology varies slightly, with specifically the rank of Major being termed Commandante.
The above summarizes four nationalities, several times as many sovereign states, and nearly three hundred years from the mid-16th to early 19th centuries, for west of the Elbe and south of the Baltic. There will be exceptions: by nationality, by branch, by time period, by personal style of the commanding officer, and even by regiment. To cover every exception would be the work of decades, and the size of an encyclopedia.
Hopefully the discussion above provides sufficient context and structure for understanding the contemporary usage of that time period and place - so that for example when reading Saski and seeing the constant address "To The Major General… " one understands why there was only one officer, Berthier, to be addressed as such.
The closest thing I could find was a New York Times Article dates 1862 which described the military forces of Spain, with reference to ranks. These ranks were probably replicated throughout the Spanish Empire.
The general officers of the Spanish Army at the present time consist of
Marshals of Camp… 142
The Staff of the Army comprises: 3 brigadiers, 9 colonels, 12 lieutenant-colonels, 25 commandants, 60 captains, and 40 lieutenants.
The Royal Corps of Halberdiers consists of 43 officers, and 240 rank and file. Total, 283 men.
The Infantry comprises 5,972 officers, and 164,000 rank and file, making a total of 109,972 men. They are organized as follows:
Forty regiments of the line of two battalions.
One regiment of three battalions. permanently stationed at Ceuta.
Twenty battalions of Chasseurs.
Eighty battalions of reserve, (provinciales.)
During the war in Africa, these eighty battalions of reserve furnished 60,000 men, with 1,613 officers.
The Cavalry comprises 968 officers, and 14,600 rank and file. Total, 15,568 men, with 14,710 horses. There are also 376 men belonging to the General School of Cavalry. The organization is as follows:
Four regiments of Carabineers.
Four regiments of Cuirassiers.
Six regiments of Lancers.
Four regiments of Chasseurs.
Two regiments of Hussars.
Two squadrons of Chasseurs.
Four squadrons of Remounts.
The twenty regiments are each divided into three squadrons, with 520 men in each squadron.
The Artillery comprises 689 officers and 11,680 rank and file. Total number of men 12,369, with 2,600 horses. They are divided as under:
Five regiments of foot Artillery.
Four brigades of mounted Artillery.
Two brigades of mountain Artillery.
One brigade of horse Artillery.
Five brigades of foot Artillery, (fixed in garrisons.)
The Engineers comprise 256 officers and 3,760 rank and file. Total, 4,016 men. They are divided into two regiments, of two battalions each.
The Gendarmerie, or civil guard, comprise 451 officers and 12,500 men. Total, 12,951, with 1,500 horses.
The Militia of the Canaries is divided into six battalions of Provinciales, three sections of ditto, and seventeen companies of artillery. The entire force of this militia is 225 officers and 7,104 rank and file. Total, 7,329 men.
The Corps of Carabineers comprises 499 officers and 11,285 rank and file. Total 11,784 men, with 1,200 horses.
The Corps of Catalonia contains 16 officers and 500 rank and file. Total, 516 men.
The total military force of Spain is as under:
Royal Corps of Halberdiers… 285 --
The Infantry… 169,972 --
The Cavalry… 15,568 14,710
The Artillery… 12,369 2,600
The Engineers… 4,016 --
The Gendarmerie… 12,951 1,500
Militia of the Canaries… 7,329 --
Corps of Carabineers… 11,784 1,200
Corps of Catalonia… 516 --
Total… 234,788 20,010
Of the total number of soldiers 9,119 are officers and 225,669 rank and file.
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Thrawn was a Grand Admiral in the Imperial Navy, so his rank badge was that of a Grand Admiral.
An individual's military rank was their placement within a military hierarchy. The military forces of the Galactic Republic, the Confederacy of Independent Systems, the Chiss Ascendancy, the Galactic Empire, the Alliance to Restore the Republic, the New Republic, the First Order, and the Resistance all utilized military ranks in their hierarchy.
Military developments in the Thirty Years War
Major military developments took place during the Thirty Years War – possibly more so than for many centuries before hand. Historians still debate whether a “military revolution” took place during the Thirty Years War, but what cannot be denied is the impact these military developments had and were to have over the next centuries.
The Thirty Years War saw a change from ‘little wars’ to what was effectively total war. A nation’s economy was based around fighting in the war and sustaining that nation’s position within the Thirty Years War. Civilian populations were adversely affected in a way not seen before. The size of armies grew massively – as did the cost of keeping those armies in the field. Armies themselves saw the first smattering of what could be called “professionalism” in the approach of Gustavus Adolphus.
The size of armies grew to sizes not seen before and they became more than a mere nuisance to the civilian population of Europe. These was made worse for the civilians in that armies tried to live off the land in an effort to reduce the cost of maintaining themselves – if that meant taking livestock and grain from civilians, there so be it. In an area where armies were temporarily based, they could decimate the land before moving on – though areas just 10 miles from a battleground or from where an army was based could be unaffected by an invading army.
|Size of armies||Spain||Holland||France||England||Sweden|
As armies grew in size, control of them became more problematic. The biggest problem faced by commanders was communication between sections of an army while it was on the move. Successful armies, such as the Swedes under Gustavus, used smaller units of highly trained men within the army as a whole. A great deal of emphasis was put on the use of cavalry.
The most common tactic used was the caracole – a combined cavalry charge assisted by firearms. Eventually this was replaced by a full scale cavalry charge. Such tactics needed well trained and disciplined troops. The Thirty Years War saw the development of professionalism within certain armies such as the Swedes. Successful attacks were sustained and offensive tactics became the norm leaving soldiers little time to pillage as had happened in previous centuries. Those armies that still had such an approach to warfare proved unsuccessful in this war. A quick offensive campaign gave the enemy little time to prepare its defences. Therefore, the Thirty Years War saw a move to campaigns based on professionalism, speed and offensive in nature. Gustavus ensured that his men were regularly paid and that locals were treated well. If Swedish soldiers needed local produce they had to pay for it rather than simply stealing it as had happened all too often in the past.
Maurice of Orange is given a lot of credit for starting these reforms as is Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden.
|“He (Gustavus) had a wider strategic vision he took Maurice’s methods, added to them and improved them, and in so doing was to impose upon the art of war a pattern which it retained almost unmodified until the advent of the revolutionary armies of France.” (Roberts)|
Many military developments had also been learned during the Spanish-Dutch war. Great advances had been made in fortress warfare and the use of pioneers. But when the conflict restarted in 1621, few new innovations were hit upon. However, one development was the use of fewer ranks of soldiers making them less susceptible to artillery fire. Infantry had traditionally been held in the following formation
This kept the men in units that were easier to command as they were less spread out but an accurate artillery/mortar shell on such a formation would be disastrous. A side-on cavalry charge could also inflict great damage as the target was that much larger. The move went to
Though more difficult to command, this formation had greater protection against artillery fire. It was also a smaller target for a side-on cavalry attack. Any such attack in the rear of the formation could also lead to the attacking cavalry being engulfed by those not directly in line of attack. However, the success, or not, of such a formation depended on training and discipline.
The war also saw an improvement in firearms – though this was not restricted to just one side. The muzzle-loading rifle came in. War put emphasis on development and armies had better standardisation in weapon design. Maps and field glasses were more commonly used and most troops got paid on a regular basis. Training manuals became more widely used especially those by Jacob de Gheyn and Jacob von Wallausen.
The impact of Gustavus should not be underestimated.
He intensified the fire power of his army by reforming formations and introducing lighter weapons. He also introduced lighter artillery which made it a lot more mobile and fitted in with Gustavus’s belief that armies should be offensive and ready to move at a moments notice and carry the necessary clout to defeat the enemy. Being able to hit your enemy hard should not compromise your mobility. Gustavus also encouraged his officers to be more self-reliant on their own command abilities. Time could only be wasted if an officer had to report back to a senior officer for permission to do something. Delay also compromised speed of action. An army waiting for orders was an army almost certainly idle.
Gustavus also had to rely on mercenaries. The population of Sweden did not allow for a large army. At the Battle of Breitenfeld, only 20% of the Swede’s army was made up of Swedes. At the Battle of Lutzen, the figure was 18%. Mercenaries by their very nature were not reliable and they held money as their master. Mercenaries swopping sides in the lead up to a battle after being offered more money was not uncommon. The economic plight of Sweden after 1632, saw large numbers of mercenaries desert Sweden for better paid employment elsewhere.
The reforms of Gustavus also had their failures. After his death, the senior generals in the Swedish army did away with smaller artillery guns in favour of larger ones. Smaller guns may have been more mobile but the impact of a large artillery gun was far greater especially in siege warfare.
Towards the end of the war, armies got smaller. The sheer cost of keeping big armies in the field was beyond the economies of some nations. In 1631, Wallenstein had over 54 foot regiments and 75 cavalry regiments – over 100,000 men in all. However, military historians have concluded that this army was in fact 230,000 as it needed the extra 130,000 to keep 100,000 soldiers in the field. The 75 cavalry regiments would have needed a large number of blacksmiths alone to keep the horses shod.
Wallenstein also agreed to raise an army but not to pay for it – this the Emperor Ferdinand had to do. The cost of the Thirty Years War for the Imperial treasury has been estimated at 250 million gulden. Spain’s contribution to her Habsburg’s cousin was a mere 1.9 million gulden while the pope, who saw the Emperor as the defender of Catholicism, provided just 900,000 gulden. Therefore, the people of the Holy Roman Empire had to foot the bill. One of the major developments of the Thirty Years War was the sheer cost of warfare itself and the implications this would have on nations within Europe.
Was there a military revolution in the Thirty Years War? Historians still disagree on this. The growth in the size of armies, the use of new weapons, the development of professionalism and new tactics have pushed some into deciding that there was a revolution at a military level. The counter-argument to this is the fact that no single army or combination of armies had the ability to deliver a knockout blow that lead to victory. The Peace of Westphalia is also known as the Peace of Exhaustion – all sides in the war were exhausted by the mid-1640’s. Limm believes that armies were capable of fighting a series of ad hoc campaigns but of not being able to defeat the other side to such an extent that it had to surrender.
Napoleon was not the only high-quality commander in the French armies. Far from it. He fostered a core of skilled and courageous leaders, especially his marshals, who helped lead his troops to victory. None were as gifted as Napoleon himself, but they ensured a high caliber of leadership.
Napoleon’s farewell to his Imperial Guard, 20 April 1814
Spain’s Golden Age in literature
At one extreme there was the picaresque novel, with its implicit satire of a society in which one could make one’s way by cleverness and roguery rather than by honest work—that is, if one did not happen to be born a nobleman. Thus, the hidalgo in the Lazarillo de Tormes (published 1554 doubtfully attributed to Diego Hurtado de Mendoza), the first of the picaresque novels, is down and out but would rather starve than work, and he expects his servant, the boy Lazarillo, to scrounge for them both. In Don Quixote (published 1605 and 1615), Miguel de Cervantes raised the novel to a completely new level of social and psychological insight. It is, among other things, a parable of Cellorigo’s “republic of enchanted men” living in a world of illusions and tilting at windmills.
At the other extreme, there was the drama from exponents such as Lope de Vega, Tirso de Molina, and Pedro Calderón de la Barca. As with the picaresque novel, the comedy of the Golden Age was concerned with the contemporary social scene. The psychological problems faced by its characters arose nearly always directly out of social conflicts. But the social purpose of these plays was essentially conservative, representing a defense of Spain’s highly structured society. This was achieved by insisting on the special dignity and honour of all social ranks, from the king down to the peasants. Thus, Lope introduced the common people as fully rounded characters on the stage, allowing, for instance, to the daughter of a blacksmith the emotions of love formerly reserved on the stage to aristocratic ladies. Heredity and blood are the principles of a social order that, in the comedies, may be threatened but is always reaffirmed in the end. There is perhaps a link here between the visual arts of the age and the Baroque style.
The Imperial pilots of the Starfighter Corps are a subject of great debate. One school of thought is that such personnel are members of the Imperial Navy while another possibility exists that the starfighters comprise an entire separate branch of service. Several different literature sources have provided a feasible rank structure for the Starfighter Corps, with indications that Starfighter pilots are Imperial officers with ranks similar to the Army and Navy combined. No starfighter pilot has ever been seen wearing rank insignia but this may have been since the pilots were only seen in flight suits. It is plausible that a separate duty uniform exists, upon which rank insignia may be displayed.
A conjectural rank system for the Imperial Starfighter Corps is as follows
- High Marshal (High Admiral)
- Force Marshal (Fleet Admiral)
- Chief Marshal (Admiral)
- Marshall (Vice Admiral)
- Vice Marshal (Rear Admiral)
- Flight Commodore (Commodore)
- Group Captain (Captain)
- Wing Commander (Commander)
- Squadron Leader (Lieutenant Commander)
- Flight Lieutenant (Lieutenant)
- Flying Officer (Sub-Lieutenant)
- Pilot Officer (Ensign)
- Flight Cadet (Midshipman)
Corresponding Imperial Navy rank listed as comparison
History of Spain
Human fossils in Spain belong to modern humans (Homo sapiens), the Neanderthals (H. neanderthalensis), and even earlier members of the human lineage, possibly H. erectus or H. heidelbergensis. A large number of bones have been recovered from caves at Atapuerca, Burgos, which come from sediments that are at least 300,000 years old. Other important sites are at Torralba and Ambrona (Soria), where elephants (Palaeoloxodon antiquus) were trapped accidentally in marshy ground and their remains scavenged. From those sites were excavated shouldered points fashioned from young elephant tusks as well as hundreds of stone implements (hand axes, cleavers, and scrapers on flakes, made from chalcedony, quartzite, quartz, and even limestone) and wooden objects. Pieces of charcoal show that fire was known and used. But H. erectus or H. heidelbergensis humans were already living in Spain as early as 1.2 million years ago, as indicated by finds at Atapuerca and by stone tools recovered from beaches in the Algarve (Mirouço), Huelva (Punta Umbria), and Cádiz (Algeciras) and the terraces of the lower Guadalquivir, Tagus, Manzanares, and Ter rivers. Choppers, angular balls, and flakes from the terraces of the Jabalón River (Ciudad Real) are older than 700,000 years and perhaps more than 1,000,000 years.
Fossils of Neanderthals were found at Bañolas (Girona) and Cova Negra (Valencia). Fully developed Neanderthals, some represented by well-preserved skulls, come from more than 10 different localities throughout Spain, including Los Casares, Carigüela, Gabasa, and Zafarraya, with a cluster in Gibraltar (Forbes’ Quarry, Gorham’s Cave, and La Genista).
The appearance of modern humans ( H. sapiens) in Spain after 35,000 bce opened a new era, during which material culture acquired an innovating velocity it never lost. Flint tools became more varied and smaller, and bone and antler were used for harpoons, spears, and ornaments. Needles from El Pendo Cave ( Cantabria) hint at sewn clothing of furs and skins. Most remarkable were the intellectual achievements, culminating in the Paleolithic (Old Stone Age) caves found in the Cantabrian Mountains of northern Spain. Those caves were painted, engraved, and sculpted and visited intermittently between 25,000 and 10,000 bce . On the walls and ceilings are images of cold-weather animals—such as bison, mammoths, Przewalski’s horse, aurochs (wild oxen), and woolly rhinoceroses. Predators such as bears, wolverines, and lions are rarely represented, and depictions of humans are extremely scarce. Many caves (such as the group of caves at El Castillo, Cantabria) show rows of coloured dots, arrowlike marks, negative impressions of human hands, and signs interpreted as vulvas. Animals may be drawn skillfully in black outlines, like the horses at Ekain (Guipúzcoa), or painted in polychrome, as at Altamira (Cantabria), and in bichrome, as at Tito Bustillo (Asturias). Those are scenes and standard compositions, but figures are also drawn singly (Puente Viesgo, Cantabria), engraved repeatedly, or drawn on top of other representations. Although the main animals hunted for food were red deer, ibex (mountain goat), and reindeer, the most-common depictions are of aurochs, bison, and horses. Salmon, a seasonal food, was rarely drawn, and plants never appear. Similar themes occur on portable objects made of bone and antlers and on stone plaques. At the habitation site of the cave of Parpalló ( Valencia), thousands of engraved stone plaques accumulated although their interpretation is difficult, it should be stressed that Paleolithic art follows conventions. Figures are placed formally within selected caves (probably sanctuaries), with meanings hidden from modern eyes. Paleolithic visitors left stone lamps and pine firebrands as well as footprints and hand marks on muddy surfaces in the French caves of Fontanet, Isturitz (Haristoi), and Lascaux. The complexity of the Paleolithic mental universe is demonstrated by the mortuary practice in two graves in the Cueva Morín (Cantabria), where four mutilated burials survived as casts formed by a compact greasy sediment that had replaced the bodies. The dead were accompanied by meat offerings and ochre and buried below low mounds, on top of which ritual fires burned.
After 10,000 bce the climatic changes accompanying the end of the last glaciation led to the disappearance of cold-tolerant game and the flooding of their grazing lands near the coasts. Hunters responded by widening their range of food and collecting quantities of marine shellfish. Such adaptations can be seen in caves as far apart as Santimamiñe (Guipúzcoa), Costalena (Zaragoza [Saragossa]), and Dos Aguas (Valencia). More than 7,500 figures painted by those hunters and gatherers are known from all over the eastern and southern Iberian Peninsula, dating from 7000 to 3500 bce and giving tantalizing glimpses of their society. Located in the open air, usually beneath rock overhangs or in protecting hollows, are animated representations of people dancing (two women in voluminous skirts at Dos Aguas three women in skirts and two nude ithyphallic men at the Barranco del Pajarejo, Albarracín), fighting, robbing honey, stalking red deer, and hunting wild goats. Some scenes are constructed around a narrative. The Remigia Cave and the series of 10 cavities with outstanding paintings at the Cingle de La Gasulla ( Castellón) next to it show scenes of remarkable activities in cavity IX two matched groups of archers, led by a man sporting a headdress, are engaged in hand-to-hand combat, and nearby in the rock shelter of Les Dogues another combat pits two bands of archers rhythmically against each other at close range. Bees are depicted more than 200 times, often near hives, and in cavity IV of the Cingle de la Ermita del Barranc Fondo (La Valltorta, Castellón), a scene shows a long fibre ladder with men climbing it to reach a hive defended by oversized bees. Other well-preserved groups of paintings are found at Minateda and Alpera (Albacete) and around Bicorp (Valencia).
The craft of pottery making and the cultivation of domestic cereals and livestock that characterize the Neolithic (New Stone Age) economy in Europe reached Spain from the central Mediterranean, and perhaps from northwestern Africa, after 6000 bce . Although agriculture and husbandry were known early in eastern and southern Spain, they were assimilated extremely slowly and irregularly. Caves and sites conveniently located for hunting, such as those around Montserrat (Barcelona) and at La Sarsa (Valencia) and Carigüela (Granada), were still preferred, and people lived in extended families or small bands. A different pattern prevailed in southwestern Spain and Portugal, where the advent of the Neolithic Period came later, between 4500 and 3800 bce . By 4000 bce the first big collective tombs were being built from boulders, and by 3500 bce funerary monuments were prominent in the landscapes of Alentejo (Portugal), Extremadura, and the Atlantic littoral. Veritable megalithic cemeteries arose around Pavia and Reguengos de Monsaraz (Alentejo).
Significant changes in technology and social organization occurred after 3200 bce . Skills in copper working were accompanied by a tendency to live in larger village communities. Differences in natural resources and population density meant that regions developed unequally, and centres of innovation are known all around the southern and southwestern coasts of Spain and Portugal. Particularly impressive is the settlement at Los Millares ( Almería), which extends over five acres (two hectares) and is protected by triple walls of stone reinforced with towers at regular intervals. A formidable barbican with arrow slits and guard chambers projected from the gateway. Those defenses stretch over 330 yards (300 metres) and cut off a triangle of land high above the Andarax River, with a cemetery of more than 70 collective tombs lying just outside the walls. On the nearby hills, 10 or 15 smaller citadels watched over the natural approaches to the village. Modest dwellings lay inside, and an especially large building was used as a workshop to melt copper and to cast objects in simple molds the metal wastes and crucibles show that pure copper and copper mixed with a small amount of arsenic as a hardening agent were regularly selected. Mines and copper-smelting slags of this date are known from the Alhamilla highlands, less than 12 miles (20 km) to the east. Smaller, undefended villages are known from El Barranquete and Almizaraque (Almería). The agricultural economy was based on growing wheat and barley, raising common domestic animals such as cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats, and probably tilling small areas of river bottomland, the only land plentifully watered in that arid region. Varied grave goods such as copper implements, personal ornaments, and decorated vessels for drinking and feasting (called bell beakers from their distinctive shape) indicate a stratified tribal society at Los Millares with marked inequality of riches and access to the good things in life. The defenses and multiple forts suggest social instability and the raiding and fighting that went with it. Similar villages and their megalithic tombs are known in the western outskirts of Sevilla (Seville), eastward at the Cabezo del Plomo (Murcia), and at Vila Nova de São Pedro and Zambujal north of Lisbon (Portugal).
Many Copper Age villages had been abandoned by 2000 bce , and Bronze Age settlement shifted to new sites, sometimes only a few hundred yards away. Steep hilltops were favoured for their inaccessibility, and in southeastern Spain the custom of burying people below the floors of their houses replaced the collective practices of the Copper Age societies. Social stratification is very marked at settlement sites such as El Argar and El Oficio (Almería), where the richest women were adorned with silver diadems while their male consorts were equipped with bronze swords, axes, and polished pottery. At Fuente-Álamo (Almería) the elite lived apart from the village, in square stone houses with round granaries and a water cistern nearby. Such customs were practiced with less intensity on the southern Meseta, where fortified hamlets known as motillas dominated a flat landscape. In eastern and northern Spain people did not live in villages at all but lived in hamlets such as Moncín (Zaragoza) or on isolated family farms such as El Castillo (Frías de Albarracín, Teruel). In the wetter regions of Spain and Portugal, along the Atlantic coast and the Bay of Biscay, so-called castros—small settlements fortified with a deep ditch and inner bank—arose, with a flourishing bronze industry linked to southern Britain and France and a custom of burying hoards of metal tools and weapons. Mining for copper ores was practiced at El Milagro and Aramo (Asturias), where the last miners abandoned their antler picks and levers deep in the underground galleries. Such differences in settlement patterns and customs indicate that Bronze Age Spain was not homogeneous but a social mosaic that included centralized tribal societies as well as looser associations based on smaller units. Such Bronze Age societies were prospering when Phoenician sailors reached Spain about 800 bce .
Imperial camps [ edit | edit source ]
Imperial camps are located in each of Skyrim's Holds, with the exception of Haafingar. These serve as outposts for the Legion and are instrumental in the ongoing civil war.
They are normally commanded by a Legate who can be found in their tent, and also have an Imperial Quartermaster working at a forge who will also serve as a merchant.
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Licinius, in full Valerius Licinianus Licinius, (died 325), Roman emperor from 308 to 324.
Born of Illyrian peasant stock, Licinius advanced in the army and was suddenly elevated to the rank of augustus (November 308) by his friend Galerius, who had become emperor. Galerius hoped to have him rule the West, but since Italy, Africa, and Spain were held by the usurper Maxentius, while Constantine reigned in Gaul and Britain, Licinius had to content himself with ruling Pannonia. When Galerius died in 311, Licinius took over Galerius’ European dominions. He married Constantine’s half sister Constantia (313) and in the same year defeated the Eastern emperor Maximinus at Tzurulum, east of Adrianople, Thrace, pursuing him into Asia, where Maximinus died. Licinius thus added the entire eastern half of the empire to his dominion.
After a brief accord between the two augusti, Constantine forced Licinius to surrender the provinces of Pannonia and Moesia. There followed 10 years of uneasy peace in which Licinius built up his army and accumulated a huge reserve of treasure. In 324 Constantine defeated him at Adrianople and again at Chrysopolis (now Üsküdar, Tur.). Licinius surrendered, was exiled to Thessalonica, and was executed the next year on a charge of attempted rebellion.
During the campaign against Maximinus, Licinius had made his army use a monotheistic form of prayer closely resembling that later imposed by Constantine. On June 5, 313, he had issued an edict granting toleration to the Christians and restoring church property. Hence his contemporaries, the Latin writer Lactantius and Bishop Eusebius, hailed him as a convert. But he eventually became alienated from the Christians and about 320 initiated a mild form of persecution.
What were the ranks in the Army of Imperial Spain? - History
HMAS Vendetta in 1943
HMAS Vendetta (D69/I69) (formerly HMS Vendetta (FA3/F29/D69)) was a V class destroyer that served in the Royal Navy and the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). One of 25 V class ships ordered for the Royal Navy during World War I, Vendetta entered service in 1917.
During World War I, Vendetta participated in the Second Battle of Heligoland Bight, and operated against Bolshevik forces during the British Baltic Campaign. Most of the ship's post-war career was spent operating in the Mediterranean. In 1933, Vendetta was one of five destroyers selected for transfer to the RAN. Over the next six years, the ship was either involved in peacetime activities or was in reserve, but when World War II started, she was assigned to the Mediterranean as part of the 'Scrap Iron Flotilla'. During the Greek Campaign, Vendetta was involved in the transportation of Allied troops to Greece, then the evacuation to Crete. After, the destroyer served with the Tobruk Ferry Service, and made the highest number of runs to the besieged city of Tobruk.
At the end of 1941, Vendetta was docked for refit in Singapore, but after the Japanese invaded, the destroyer had to be towed to Fremantle, then Melbourne. After the refit, which converted the destroyer into a dedicated escort vessel, ended in December 1942, Vendetta spent the rest of World War II operating as a troop and convoy escort around Australia and New Guinea. Vendetta was decommissioned in late 1945, and was scuttled off Sydney Heads in 1948.(Full article. )
Charge of the Rough Riders at San Juan Hill, by Frederic Remington. Theodore Roosevelt leads the assault on horseback along with a hat-less Buffalo Soldier and K troop officer, Lt. Woodbury Kane in brown-uniform officer with pistol in right hand
The List of Medal of Honor recipients for the Spanish–American War contains all 110 men who received the the United States military's highest award for valor, the Medal of Honor, for their actions during the Spanish–American War.
The Spanish-American War was a military conflict between Spain and the United States that began in April 1898. The war began after America made demands for Spain to peacefully resolve the Cuban fight for independence and those requests were rejected. This sent strong expansionist sentiment in the United States that may have motivated the government to target Spain's remaining overseas territories: Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Guam and the Caroline Islands. The Treaty of Paris ended the conflict 109 days after the outbreak of war giving the United States ownership of the former Spanish colonies of Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Guam. (Full article. )
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"We have known the bitterness of defeat and the exultation of triumph, and from both we have learned there can be no turning back. We must go forward to preserve in peace what we won in war. A new era is upon us. Even the lesson of victory itself brings with it profound concern, both for our future security and the survival of civilization. The destructiveness of the war potential, through progressive advances in scientific discovery, has in fact now reached a point which revises the traditional concepts of war."
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Zweihänder - 22.214.171.124 - 2021/06/17 03:04
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T. M. Jobaer - Faruk3939 - 2021/06/16 22:15
← Older revision Revision as of 22:15, 16 June 2021 Line 20: Line 20: On 31 July 2018, Major General Jobaer was appointed Director General of National Security Intelligence. He replaced.