American Red Cross

American Red Cross

The American Red Cross is an organization founded in 1881 by Clara Barton in Washington DC. The worldwide Red Cross movement began earlier in order to provide neutral aid to the victims of war.Barton drew her inspiration from the Europeans but during her 23 years as leader of the Red Cross, she pressed for an expansion of its goals to include relief from natural disasters as well.The American Red Cross operates under a unique charter, established by Congress in 1900 and revised in 1905. The president of the United States serves as honorary chairman of the American Red Cross.World War I provided the impetus for the greatest period of growth in the history of the American Red Cross. In addition to vast wartime efforts, the Red Cross provided thousands of nurses during the global Influenza epidemic of 1918.In the inter-war period, the Red Cross was active in providing assistance after the Mississippi floods of 1927 and during The Great Depression. The advent of World War II brought the American Red Cross back into work with the military.During World War II, at the request of the U.S. As a result of the AIDS epidemic, the Red Cross developed much higher levels of security during the 1990s.


The Untold Truth Of The American Red Cross

The American Red Cross is an institution. It's one of the biggest charities in the country, raking in billions every year. After any disaster you see people sharing links all over social media, begging others to donate to the Red Cross so they can get out there and help those affected.

But the organization has a dark underbelly. Its history is full of scandal and bigotry. It flat-out refused to help during one of the biggest disasters America ever faced. In the modern era, Red Cross assistance during emergencies has been called into question time and again, by everyone from watchdog groups, to politicians, to the people they were supposed to help, to their own volunteers. There are also serious questions about what exactly they do with donations, and why their employees steal them all the damn time.

This list just might convince you that after the next disaster, your precious dollars would be better off with a different charity.


7 Red Cross Facts

1. A gruesome battle sparked the idea for the Red Cross.
In 1859 Swiss entrepreneur Jean Henri Dunant went in search of French Emperor Napoleon III, whom he hoped would help with a business venture in French-controlled Algeria. Dunant never did gain a meeting with the emperor. But while in present-day Italy he witnessed the Battle of Solferino, in which some 40,000 troops were killed or wounded in a single day. Since neither army had much of a medical corps, Dunant organized a group of volunteers to bring food and water to the wounded, to treat their injuries and to write letters to their families. Then, in 1862, he published a book titled 𠇊 Memory of Solferino,” in which he described viewing amputations without anesthetic and groaning, fly-covered men who had been left for dead. “Some, who had gaping wounds already beginning to show infection�gged to be put out of their misery, and writhed with faces distorted in the grip of the death struggle,” Dunant wrote. Others were 𠇍isfigured…their limbs stiffened, their bodies blotched with ghastly spots, their hands clawing at the ground, their eyes staring wildly.” At the end of his book, Dunant suggested “permanent societies of volunteers who in time of war would give help to the wounded without regard for their nationality.” This vision for the Red Cross, championed by Gustave Moynier of the Geneva Public Welfare Society, became a reality the following year.

2. Not everyone believed the Red Cross was a good idea.
In his book, Dunant praised British nurse Florence Nightingale for her “passionate devotion to suffering humanity” and for giving up “the pleasures of opulence in order to devote herself to doing good.” But Nightingale, who had made a name for herself in the Crimean War, did not originally think highly of the Red Cross. “Such a society,” she told Dunant, “would take upon itself duties which ought to be performed by the government of each country and so would relieve them of responsibilities which really belong to them𠉪nd render war more easy.” Nightingale was harsher in a private letter to a colleague, calling the Red Cross’ “views most absurd—just such as would originate in a little state like Geneva, which never can see war.” She later softened her stance and even joined the British Red Cross ladies’ committee. Nonetheless, critics of the organization remained, such as a journalist who declared during World War I that “to heal men’s wounds and send them back to the front as soon as possible is to prolong war indefinitely.” A generation later, in arguably its most controversial decision, the International Red Cross declined to publicly condemn the Holocaust despite knowing of the atrocities.


A Brief History of the American Red Cross

Clara Barton and a circle of acquaintances founded the American Red Cross in Washington, D.C. on May 21, 1881. Barton first heard of the Swiss-inspired international Red Cross network while visiting Europe following the Civil War. Returning home, she campaigned for an American Red Cross society and for ratification of the Geneva Convention protecting the war-injured, which the United States ratified in 1882.

Barton headed the Red Cross for 23 years, during which time it conducted its first domestic and overseas disaster relief efforts, aided the United States military during the Spanish-American War, and campaigned successfully for the inclusion of peacetime relief work as part of the International Red Cross Movement-the so-called “American Amendment” that initially met with some resistance in Europe.

The Red Cross received its first congressional charter in 1900 and a second in 1905, the year after Barton resigned from the organization. This charter-which remains in effect today-sets forth the purposes of the organization that include giving relief to and serving as a medium of communication between members of the American armed forces and their families and providing national and international disaster relief and mitigation.

Prior to the First World War, the Red Cross introduced its first aid, water safety, and public health nursing programs. With the outbreak of war, the organization experienced phenomenal growth. The number of local chapters jumped from 107 in 1914 to 3,864 in 1918 and membership grew from 17,000 to more than 20 million adult and 11 million Junior Red Cross members. The public contributed $400 million in funds and material to support Red Cross programs, including those for American and Allied forces and civilian refugees. The Red Cross staffed hospitals and ambulance companies and recruited 20,000 registered nurses to serve the military. Additional Red Cross nurses came forward to combat the worldwide influenza epidemic of 1918.

After the war, the Red Cross focused on service to veterans and enhanced its programs in safety training, accident prevention, home care for the sick and nutrition education. It also provided relief for victims of such major disasters as the Mississippi River floods in 1927 and severe drought and the Depression during the 1930s.

The Second World War called upon the Red Cross to provide extensive services once again to the U.S. military, Allies, and civilian war victims. It enrolled more than 104,000 nurses for military service, prepared 27 million packages for American and Allied prisoners of war, and shipped more than 300,000 tons of supplies overseas. At the military’s request, the Red Cross also initiated a national blood program that collected 13.3 million pints of blood for use by the armed forces.

After World War II, the Red Cross introduced the first nationwide civilian blood program that now supplies nearly 50 percent of the blood and blood products in this country. The Red Cross expanded its role in biomedical research and entered the new field of human tissue banking and distribution. During the 1990s, it engineered a massive modernization of its blood services operations to improve the safety of its blood products. It continued to provide services to members of the armed forces and their families, including during the Korean, Vietnam, and Gulf wars. The Red Cross also expanded its services into such fields as civil defense, CPR/AED training, HIV/AIDS education, and the provision of emotional care and support to disaster victims and their survivors. It helped the federal government form the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and serves as its principal supplier of mass care in federally declared disasters.

While closely associated with the federal government in the promotion of its objectives, the Red Cross is an independent, volunteer-led organization, financially supported by voluntary public contributions and cost-reimbursement charges. A 50-member, all volunteer Board of Governors leads the organization. The president of the United States, who is honorary chairman of the Red Cross, appoints eight governors, including the chairman of the board. The chairman nominates and the board elects the president of the Red Cross who is responsible for carrying into effect the policies and programs of the board. The American Red Cross works closely with the International Committee of the Red Cross on matters of international conflict and social, political, and military unrest. As a member of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, which it helped found in 1919, the American Red Cross joins more than 175 other national societies in bringing aid to victims of disasters throughout the world.


How the American Red Cross Works

The Red Cross movement started in Europe with Swiss businessman Jean-Henri Dunant. In 1859, he witnessed a bloody battle near Solferino, Italy that left the battlefield strewn with wounded soldiers. Dunant was horrified that the men were left there to die from their injuries. He organized local villagers into volunteer teams that recovered the injured, brought them into homes and churches and cared for them as best they could.

With little or no medical training or supplies, there was a limit to what they could accomplish. Dunant vowed to harness the willingness of people to help those in need by organizing and training international relief groups. These groups would remain independent of any nation, and work on battlefields worldwide to provide aid to civilians and soldiers who were victims of war.

In 1863, a Geneva, Switzerland conference outlined the principles of the Red Cross movement. At a second conference, participants drew up the Geneva Convention. This was a set of rules for the treatment of wounded on the battlefield and the general conduct of war. It was initially signed by twelve European nations. Today, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) works in war zones and on battlefields worldwide.

During the American Civil War, a former schoolteacher and office clerk named Clara Barton volunteered to nurse wounded soldiers. She realized that medical care behind the lines could only accomplish so much -- wounded men needed medical care as soon after the battle as possible. As a battlefield nurse, Barton witnessed the horrors of war firsthand. After the war, she created a system for tracking down missing soldiers and reuniting them with their families. On a trip to Europe, Barton learned of the Red Cross, and was struck by the parallels between her efforts and those of Dunant. After volunteering with the Red Cross in European wars, she returned home and began organizing the American Red Cross, although the United States had not yet signed the Geneva Convention. She was determined to overcome the political isolation of the era, and she also recognized the toll that natural disasters exacted on U.S. citizens every year. The American Red Cross would not restrict its efforts to wartime.

In the early 1880s, deadly floods and forest fires drew attention to Barton's efforts. Within a few years, the U.S. government signed the Geneva Convention and accepted the American Red Cross organization. Later, Barton would travel again to Europe, where she eventually convinced the Red Cross federations to develop plans for peacetime relief efforts. Barton served as President of the American Red Cross for 23 years, and traveled to battlefields around the world to personally oversee relief efforts.

The American Red Cross is part of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), an umbrella organization that unites nearly 200 national Red Cross and Red Crescent societies. The national organizations are independent, but the IFRC coordinates their efforts and helps them unite for international relief projects. This federation is focused on disaster relief, rather than the war aid provided by the ICRC.

Next, we'll find out how the American Red Cross is structured.

Seven principles represent the philosophy shared by every Red Cross or Red Crescent organization in the world:


World War II

Red Cross was needed again during the Second World War, and offered extensive services to the U.S. Military, civilian war victims, and the Allies. More than 104,000 nurses were enrolled for military service. Red Cross also assembled around 27 million packages for prisoners of war and shipped more than 300,000 tons of supplies.

During the period, they also started their national blood program, and collected more than 13 million pints for the armed forces. Once the war ended, their civilian blood donation program was initiated.


What does sample stand for American Red Cross?

A &ndash Allergies. M &ndash Medications. P &ndash Past Pertinent medical history. L &ndash Last Oral Intake (Sometimes also Last Menstrual Cycle.) E &ndash Events Leading Up To Present Illness / Injury.

Secondly, what is last oral intake? Many caregivers narrowly ask their patient about last oral intake, with a focus on food eaten at the patient's most recent meal. For patients with abdominal pain complaints, asking about their last outs &mdash urination and bowel movements &mdash is relevant and appropriate.

In respect to this, what is sample Opqrst?

OPQRST SAMPLE 2. Page 1. OPQRST. OPQRST is a mnemonic used to evaluate a patient's symptoms. Remember to ask the patient exactly where the complaint is prior to evaluating the symptom!

What does the P in sample refer to?

For example, P refers to a population proportion and p, to a sample proportion. X refers to a set of population elements and x, to a set of sample elements. N refers to population size and n, to sample size.


How the American Red Cross Works

The American Red Cross has not always operated smoothly. The end of Clara Barton's tenure as president of the Red Cross was marked by an internal power struggle that resulted in accusations of improper bookkeeping on her part, and ended with her resignation.

Controversy involving the presidency of the Red Cross erupted again during the 1996 campaign for United States President. Senator Bob Dole was running as the Republican candidate and his wife Elizabeth Dole was head of the American Red Cross. There were reports that she used a personally selected group of advisers to shift Red Cross policy for reasons that may have had more to do with her husband's political standing than the demands of health and safety programs [ref].

Marsha Evans resigned from the presidency in December of 2005. Although some critics claim that this is related to the Red Cross' Hurricane Katrina relief efforts, Evans cited difficulties in dealing with the Board of Governors. She had held the position since 2002.

The Red Cross' blood collection services have come under fire for violations of safety protocols for blood collection and storage. In 2001, the FDA filed a motion in federal court to publicize the Red Cross' failure to improve several specific deficiencies in the blood collection program, such as improper labeling and lack of inventory controls [ref]. The Red Cross claimed that all the FDA violations were simple bookkeeping errors, and that there is no danger to the nation's blood supply.

The Red Cross has also been criticized by gay rights groups who claim that some of their blood donation restrictions discriminate against gay men. Donors who have engaged in certain activities that put them at high risk for blood-borne diseases are restricted from donating for a certain period of time, or in some cases banned for life. Examples include getting a tattoo, living in Africa, using illegal drugs intravenously, or engaging in male-to-male sex. A man who has had a sex with another man after 1977 (or a woman who has had sex with a man who has had sex with a man) is banned from donating blood for life. In 2000, the issue was reviewed, but the Red Cross did not revise the ban [ref].

Some of the Red Cross' financial donors have been angered to find out that some of the money they donated was diverted to fund future relief efforts, instead of the disaster that prompted their donation. For example, about $200 million of the $1.1 billion collected in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks was put aside to fund future relief efforts. Donor complaints resulted in the money being shifted back to 9/11 relief, the resignation of Red Cross president Bernadine Healy, and a promise of greater transparency in the agency's financial dealings in the future [ref]. Despite those efforts, complaints surfaced again in 2005, when funds donated for relief from Hurricane Katrina were not earmarked for long-term rebuilding (something for which Red Cross funds are not traditionally used).

Others complained that the Red Cross' relief efforts after Katrina were insufficient, poorly organized and targeted to white storm victims, while black victims didn't receive help for days. The Red Cross has refuted some of these claims here.

For more information about the American Red Cross, check out the links below.


History Of Lifeguards In The United States.

Starting in the 1800's, bathing, now known as swimming, became a popular recreational activity in the United States. Entrepreneurs saw a niche and built resorts in places like Atlantic City and New Jersey, to attract humans from inland metropolitan areas to escape the summer heat. As water activity increased, so did the incidence of drowning. By the early 1900s as many as 9,000 humans drowned each year in the United States (American Red Cross, 1994).

Initially these eager businessmen were installing lifelines. However, lifelines proved inadequate because struggling swimmers were not able to grasp ahold of them once they entered into what would become known as the "Drowning Chain". Duke Kahanamoku, one of Hawaii's first original watermen, introduced the rescue board between 1910 and 1915, and Captain Harry Sheffield of South Africa is credited with developing the first rescue float (American Red Cross, 1994). Some communities assigned police officers to perform water rescues, but this diverted resources from law enforcement. Eventually, municipalities began to hire men and women trained specifically for water rescue. They were deemed "lifeguards."

Lifeguards not being presence at all public bathing areas led the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) to develop a volunteer National Lifesaving Service in 1912. In 1914, Commodore Wilbert E. Longfellow established the American Red Cross Lifesaving, which trained swimmers throughout the United States in lifesaving and resuscitation, then organized them into volunteer corps, and encouraged them to accept responsibility for supervision of bathing activities in their communities.

In the begining the lifeguard training programs primarily emphasized personal water safety: how to prevent drownings and protect oneself in emergencies. Nonswimming rescue methods, such as throwing a rope or a floating object to the human in the water, were encouraged. Lifeguards considered swimming rescues a last resort due to the hazard presented by a panicked swimmer in the water.

However, soon swimming rescues were unavoidable for professional beach lifeguards in the United States. Special tools, such as the landline and the dory, were developed to assist in swimming rescues. Over time, improved lifesaving devices were created by beach lifeguards in the United States. These include the rescue buoy, the rescue tube, and the rescue board which are commonly used around the world at beaches, pools, and water parks. Today, many beach lifeguards use powerboats and personal watercraft to assist them in reaching off-shore swimmers in distress quickly and use scuba equipment for deep water rescues.

In 1964, the organization now known as the United States Lifesaving Association (USLA) was founded by members of several California surf lifeguard agencies originally to enhance lifesaving efforts and drowning prevention, to standardize beach lifeguard practices and educate the public about water safety along with improving professionalism among beach lifeguard organizations around the country. Membership has since expanded to include any employee of an ocean, bay, lake, river or other open water rescue service (Brewster, 2001). In 1980, the World Waterpark Association was formed to address needs in aquatic amusement parks. Following this, Ellis and Associates, through the National Pool and Waterpark Lifeguard Training program, established specialized water-park lifesaving standards and certification programs. In 1983 and 1986, respectively, the American Red Cross and YMCA expanded their training programs to provide nationally standardized instruction for lifeguards at both swimming pools and beaches. Local employers continue to provide lifeguard training at most surf beaches. The American Red Cross, USLA and Ellis and Associates establish standards which are universally adopted for lifeguard training.

Lifeguards have always provided Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and general first aid training are standard requirements for most lifeguards. In addition, many lifeguards are now both trained and certified to use advanced lifesaving tools such as the external defibrillator and portable oxygen. In some communities, lifeguards have taken on broader public safety responsibilities, such as advanced life support, coastal cliff rescue, and law enforcement.

While performing patron surveillance, usually from an elevated stand or a water-level standing or sitting position, lifeguards watch for unusual activities on the part of swimmers to recognize struggling swimmers, drowning swimmers, and swimmers with sudden medical conditions such as stroke, heart attack, asthma, diabetes, or seizures. While performing patron surveillance, Lifeguards try to prevent drowning or other injury and death by looking for swimmers in these categories and conditions. 1: Swimmers who are inactive in the water, submerged or otherwise (Passive drowning victim). When a lifeguard sees this kind of swimmer he performs an emergency rescue. 2: Swimmers who are taking in water while attempting to stay at the surface (Active drowning victim). Lifeguards look for swimmers in this condition by looking for arms flailing vertically, with the body vertical and perpendicular to the water, for the curious reason, that when swimmers begin to take in water, they stop kicking with their feet. Lifeguards perform an emergency rescue to assist this kind of swimmer. 3: Swimmers who have become tired and are having trouble swimming (Distressed swimmer) and may or may not be calling out for help. Lifeguards usually swim out and help these swimmers to the side. They may or may not require additional assistance. 4: Normal swimmers (Healthy swimmers). Problems may occur at any time, so a lifeguard must be in good physical and mental condition in order to pull someone from the water and possibly perform rescue breathing, CPR, or First Aid.

Major aquatic safety organizations in the United States have continually emphasized prevention through the "Drowning Chain" rather than rescue as the primary method to reduce drownings. Public safety education and onsite supervision by lifeguards have helped keep drowning rates low for 43 years, and have significantly reduced the number of drownings in the United States. Since 1960, both beach attendance and rescues by lifeguards have risen steadily, although the total number of reported drownings on lifeguarded beaches remained relatively stable with fewer than 106 cases each year (USLA, 2000). In fact, from 1986 through 1999, USLA reported that in California, while beach attendance has increased, so has the amount of lifeguard education (See Figure 1 in Appendix) (USLA 2000). Although rescue activity fluctuated, the number of drownings is down.

Estimates indicate that today, United States lifeguards rescue more than an estimated 100,000 humans from drowning annually. USLA data show a rescue-to-drowning ratio in the 1960s of one drowning for every 2,004 rescues at beaches with on-duty lifeguards. In the 1990s, however, the ratio improved to one drowning for every 4,832 rescues at lifeguarded beaches. In addition, for every rescue, an effective lifeguard makes scores of preventive actions, such as warning an individual away from a dangerous area and suggesting that poor swimmers stay in shallow water. There is no doubt that trained, professional lifeguards have had a positive effect on drowning prevention in the United States. While the number of Americans participating in water recreation has grown tremendously since the late 1800s and the popularity of aquatic activities has increased, the annual incidence of drowning in the United States has declined from about 6,300 persons in 1981 to about 4,000 persons in 1998 (National Center for Health Statistics, 2000). Nevertheless, despite the advances in rescue techniques and the decline in drowning rates in the United States, drowning remains a leading cause of unintentional injury death, especially among children and youth. If the incidence of drowning is to be reduced further, greater attention to prevention, including the staffing and training of lifeguards, is essential.


A History of Service: The American Red Cross During World War I

When the United States officially entered the Great War on April 6, 1917, it had been raging in Europe since the summer of 1914. Bound by its government charter to support the U.S. military, the Red Cross was championed by President Woodrow Wilson as he called upon the American people to back the organization in its support of thousands of young men heading to the battlefields of Europe.

Since the start of the war, the Red Cross had been providing relief to worn-torn European countries first with doctors, nurses, and medical supplies on the SS Red Cross or Mercy Ship and later with hospital garments, surgical bandages, and refugee clothing, sent to sister Red Cross societies, and produced by women recruited through The Women’s Bureau of the Red Cross. The Production Corps started in 1916 as a result of these early relief efforts.

With the U.S. entry into the war, the Production Corps services expanded and encompassed the active U.S. military. Other services that developed during the war effort included hospital service, camp, canteen, motor corps, and home service. But, the Production Corps was ultimately the most popular. It didn’t require any special training and tasks were accomplished quickly.

The Army and Navy regularly requested thousands of surgical dressings and what were referred to as “comfort” items for their men. Comfort items included hand-knitted socks, sweaters, soap and razors. Between 1917 and 1919, over 8 million chapter women along with many Junior Red Cross members produced over 370 million relief articles for the Allied armed forces and civilians in Europe.

During the post-war period, the Production Corps continued its work as a peacetime operation. Volunteers made thousands of comfort items and surgical dressings for hospitalized service men and veterans, as well as for soldiers at remote military outposts or Navy stations. The role of the Production Corps was formalized in 1920, and it became one of the nine units in which volunteers could serve.

Today, the Red Cross still has Production Rooms in service, which carry out similar services for active duty military members, veterans and disaster victims.


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