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Victory - History

Victory Ships built by the U.S. Maritime Commission during World War II

The Liberty's maximum speed was 11 knots, making her easy prey for submarines, so early in 1942 designs for a 15 knot ship were begun. The first of 534 Victory ships, the SS United Victory , was launched on February 28 1944, and like the Libertys, used production line techniques. The next 34 Victory ships were named for each of the Allied nations the subsequent 218 were named after American cities, the next 150 were named after educational institutions, and the rest received miscellaneous names. Attack Transports were named after Counties, except one named after President Roosevelt's personal Secretary, Marvin H. McIntyre.

The Victory ship (officially VC2) was 455 feet long and 62 feet wide. Her cross-compound steam turbine with double reduction gears developed 6,000 (AP2 type) or 8,500 (AP3s type) horsepower. One diesel Victory, the Emory Victory (VC2-M-AP4) was built. The VC2-S-AP5 was the designation given to Attack Transports built for the Navy (Haskell class). The three AP7 type were Victorys laid as AP3 or AP5 which were cancelled after VJ Day, and completed as combined passenger/cargo ships for the Carribbean trade.

Typically, Victorys were armed with:

Three Victory ships (Logan, Hobbs, and Canada) were sunk during World War II, all by kamikazes during the invasion of Okinawa. These Victorys carried a total of 24,000 tons of ammunition (54 million pounds or 24,000 metric tons), including the majority of 81 mm mortar available in the United States. This loss severely restricted combat during the invasion.

The SS Lane Victory in San Pedro, CA is open to the public for tours, occasional cruises, and can often be seen in movies and commercials. This floating museum was named after Isaac Lane who was born into slavery and later founded Lane College in Jackson, Tennessee [Alex Hailey, author of "Roots" is a famous alumnus]. The American Victory is located in Tampa, FL. The Red Oak Victory is being restored in Richmond, CA as part of the "Rosie the Riveter" Museum.

All Navy ships are designated have an alphanumeric designation such as AP 189
USAT U.S. Army Transport Service

The numbers before the names are Maritime Commission (MCV) Hull Numbers

110 Aberdeen Victory, VC2-S-AP3/AK 257 - AKS 32 Altair
760 Adelphi Victory/AG 181 Adelphi, VC2-S-AP2
164 Adrian Victory, VC2-S-AP3
616 Aiken Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT/AP 188
42 Alamo Victory, VC2-S-AP3
624 Albion Victory, VC2-S-AP2
876 Alcoa Cavalier, VC2-S1-AP7
877 Alcoa Clipper, VC2-S1-AP7
745 Alfred Victory, VC2-S-AP2/AG 180 Antioch
81 Alhambra Victory, VC2-S-AP2 /WSAT (1597)/USAT
762 Allegheny Victory, VC2-S-AP2
43 APA 127 Allendale, VC2-S-AP5
692 Alma Victory, VC2-S-AP3
841 Altoona Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
801 Amarillo Victory, VC2-S-AP2
792 American Victory, VC2-S-AP2/AG 185 Carthage
163 Ames Victory, VC2-S-AP3
770 Amherst Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
72 Anadarko Victory, VC2-S-AP2
574 Anchorage Victory, VC2-S-AP2
584 Anniston Victory, VC2-S-AP2
816 Antioch Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
162 Appleton Victory, VC2-S-AP3/USAT - AK 240 Pvt. John R. Towle
41 Arcadia Victory, VC2-S-AP3 /AF 63 Asterion
44 APA 128 Arenac, VC2-S-AP5
45 APA 129 Arlington, VC2-S-AP5/Marvin H. McIntyre
764 Asbury Victory, VC2-S-AP2
11 Atchison Victory, VC2-S-AP3
855 Atlantic City Victory, VC2-S-AP2
46 APA 130 Attala, VC2-S-AP5
642 Attleboro Victory, VC2-S-AP2
814 APA 149 Audubon, VC2-S-AP5
755 Augustana Victory, VC2-S-AP2
525 Australia Victory, VC2-S-AP3

47 APA 131 Bandera, VC2-S-AP5
630 Bardstown Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT VC2-S-AP2
742 Barnard Victory, VC2-S-AP2
48 APA 132 Barnwell, VC2-S-AP5
844 Barre Victory, VC2-S-AP2
76 Bartlesville Victory, VC2-S-AP2
787 Bates Victory, VC2-S-AP2
846 Baton Rouge Victory, VC2-S-AP2
716 Battle Creek Victory, VC2-S-AP2
772 Baylor Victory, VC2-S-AP2
580 Beatrice Victory, VC2-S-AP2
774 Beaver Victory, VC2-S-AP2
49 APA 133 Beckham, VC2-S-AP5
540 AK 231 Bedford Victory, VC2-S-AP2
92 Belgium Victory, VC2-S-AP3
701 Bellingham Victory VC2-S-AP3
111 Beloit Victory, VC2-S-AP3/USAT
734 Berea Victory, VC2-S-AP2
815 APA 150 Bergen, VC2-S-AP5
551 Berkeley Victory, VC2-S-AP2 /USAT
756 Berry Victory, VC2-S-AP2
715 Berwyn Victory, VC2-S-AP2
806 Bessemer Victory, VC2-S-AP2/AG 186 Bessemer
861 APA 237 - LPA 237 Bexar, VC2-S-AP5
848 Biddeford Victory, VC2-S-AP2
873 Billings Victory, VC2-S-AP3
573 APA 225 Bingham, VC2-S-AP5
698 Binghampton Victory, VC2-S-AP3
50 APA 134 Bland, VC2-S-AP5
805 Bloomington Victory, VC2-S-AP2
621 Blue Island Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
613 Blue Ridge Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
16 Bluefield Victory, VC2-S-AP3
874 Boise Victory, VC2-S-AP3
680 APA 234 Bollinger, VC2-S-AP5
51 APA 135 Bosque, VC2-S-AP5
52 APA 136 Botetourt, VC2-S-AP5
681 APA 235 Bottineau, VC2-S-AP5
536 AK 227 Boulder Victory, VC2-S-AP2
588 Bowdoin Victory, VC2-S-AP2
53 APA 137 Bowie, VC2-S-AP5
811 Bowling Green Victory, VC2-S-AP2/USAT - AK 252 Lt. Robert Craig
151 Bozeman Victory, VC2-S-AP3
875 Brainerd Victory, VC2-S-AP3
650 Brandon Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
54 APA 138 Braxton, VC2-S-AP5
8 Brazil Victory, VC2-S-AP3
598 Brigham Victory, VC2-S-AP2
88 Britain Victory, VC2-S-AP3
55 APA 139 Broadwater, VC2-S-AP5
860 APA 236 Bronx, VC2-S-AP5
56 APA 140 Brookings, VC2-S-AP5
171 Brown Victory, VC2-S-AP3
57 APA 141 Buckingham, VC2-S-AP5
728 Bucknell Victory, VC2-S-AP2
543 AK 234 Bucyrus Victory, VC2-S-AP2
721 Burbank Victory, VC2-S-AP2

834 C. C. N. Y. Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
780 Calvin Victory, VC2-S-AP2
93 Canada Victory, VC2-S-AP3
765 Canton Victory, VC2-S-AP2
183 Capital Victory , VC2-S-AP3/AG 172 Phoenix
738 Carleton Victory, VC2-S-AP2
27 Carroll Victory, VC2-S-AP3
710 Carthage Victory, VC2-S-AP2
706 Catawba Victory, VC2-S-AP2
77 Cedar Rapids Victory, VC2-S-AP2
644 Central Falls Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
736 Central Victory, VC2-S-AP2
78 Chanute Victory, VC2-S-AP2 /WSAT (1597)/USAT
615 Chapel Hill Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
697 Chelsea Victory, VC2-S-AP3
1 China Victory, VC2-S-AP3
733 Citadel Victory, VC2-S-AP2
102 Claremont Victory, VC2-S-AP3
684 Clark Victory, VC2-S-AP3
888 Clarksburg Victory, VC2-S-AP2 /AG 183 Clarksburg
80 Clarksdale Victory, VC2-S-AP2 /USAT
629 Clarksville Victory, VC2-S-AP2
612 Claymont Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
58 APA 142 Clearfield, VC2-S-AP5
583 Clearwater Victory, VC2-S-AP2
59 APA 143 Clermont, VC2-S-AP5
60 APA 144 Clinton, VC2-S-AP5
32 Clovis Victory, VC2-S-AP3
636 Coaldale Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
69 Cody Victory, VC2-S-AP2 /WSAT (1597)/USAT
189 Coe Victory, VC2-S-AP3
153 Coeur d'Alene Victory, VC2-S-AP3
695 Coffeyville Victory, VC2-S-AP3
61 APA 145 Colbert, VC2-S-AP5
84 Colby Victory, VC2-S-AP2 /WSAT (1597)/USAT
170 Colgate Victory, VC2-S-AP3
62 APA 146 Collingsworth, VC2-S-AP5
10 Colombia Victory, VC2-S-AP3, /AK 260 Betelgeuse
575 Colorado Springs Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
783 Cooper Union Victory, VC2-S-AP2
778 Cornell Victory, VC2-S-AP2
529 Costa Rica Victory, VC2-S-AP3/WSAT (1597)/USAT
812 APA 147 Cottle, VC2-S-AP5
890 Council Bluffs Victory, VC2-S-AP2
103 Cranston Victory, VC2-S-AP3/WSAT (1597)/USAT
178 Creighton Victory, VC2-S-AP3
813 APA 148 Crockett, VC2-S-AP5
530 Cuba Victory, VC2-S-AP3
86 Czechoslovakia Victory, VC2-S-AP3/USAT -AKV 3 -AK 274 -AG 170 Lt. James E. Robinson

21 Dalton Victory, VC2-S-AP3 /AK 256/AGM 5 Sunnyvale
862 APA 238 Dane, VC2-S-AP5
125 APA 159 Darke, VC2-S-AP5
169 Dartmouth Victory, VC2-S-AP3
172 Davidson Victory, VC2-S-AP3
727 De Pauw Victory, VC2-S-AP2
595 Denison Victory, VC2-S-AP2
126 APA 160 Deuel, VC2-S-AP5
550 Devils Lake Victory, VC2-S-AP2
127 APA 161 Dickens, VC2-S-AP5
83 Dickinson Victory, VC2-S-AP2
96 Dominican Victory, VC2-S-AP3/WSAT (1597)/USAT
700 Dothan Victory, VC2-S-AP3
74 Douglas Victory, VC2-S-AP2
757 Drake Victory, VC2-S-AP2
128 APA 162 Drew, VC2-S-AP5
691 Drew Victory/AG 173 Provo VC2-S-AP3
744 Drexel Victory, VC2-S-AP2
761 Drury Victory, VC2-S-AP2
731 Duke Victory, VC2-S-AP2
549 Durango Victory, VC2-S-AP2
19 Durham Victory, VC2-S-AP3

763 Earlham Victory, VC2-S-AP2
645 East Point Victory, VC2-S-AP2
129 APA 163 Eastland, VC2-S-AP5
130 APA 164 Edgecombe, VC2-S-AP5
131 APA 165 Effingham, VC2-S-AP5
600 El Reno Victory, VC2-S-AP2
95 El Salvador Victory, VC2-S-AP3
577 Elgin Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT Pvt. Charles N. De Glopper
548 Elko Victory, VC2-S-AP2
105 Elmira Victory, VC2-S-AP3
654 Emory Victory, VC2-M-AP4
712 Enid Victory, VC2-S-AP2
112 Escanaba Victory, VC2-S-AP3/AF 57 Regulus
526 Ethiopia Victory, VC2-S-AP3/AK 281 Victoria
618 Eufala Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT

614 Fairmont Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
648 Fayetteville Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
704 Fenn Victory, VC2-S-AP2
749 Fisk Victory, VC2-S-AP2
71 Flagstaff Victory, VC2-S-AP2
132 APA 166 Fond du Lac, VC2-S-AP5
732 Fordham Victory/USAT VC2-S-AP2
602 Frederick Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
133 APA 167 Freestone, VC2-S-AP5
625 Frontenac Victory, VC2-S-AP2
622 Frostburg Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
174 Furman Victory , VC2-S-AP3/AK 280 Furman

134 APA 168 Gage, VC2-S-AP5
22 Gainsville Victory, VC2-S-AP3
135 APA 169 Gallatin, VC2-S-AP5
653 Georgetown Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
863 APA 239 Glynn, VC2-S-AP5
688 Gonzaga Victory, VC2-S-AP3
136 APA 170 Gosper, VC2-S-AP5
826 Goucher Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT - AP 191 Sgt. Howard E. Woodford
33 Grange Victory, VC2-S-AP3 /USAT - AKV 4 - AK 275 Pvt. Joseph F. Merrell
137 APA 171 Granville, VC2-S-AP5
717 Great Falls Victory, VC2-S-AP2
2 Greece Victory, VC2-S-AP3
714 Greeley Victory, VC2-S-AP2/AG 187 Milford
159 Green Bay Victory, VC2-S-AP3
18 Greenville Victory, VC2-S-AP3 /AK 237
722 Gretna Victory, VC2-S-AP2
138 APA 172 Grimes, VC2-S-AP5
729 Grinnell Victory, VC2-S-AP2
750 Grove City Victory, VC2-S-AP2/USAT
533 Guatemala Victory, VC2-S-AP3/USAT
838 Gustavus Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT

634 Hagerstown Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
532 Haiti Victory, VC2-S-AP3/AK 238/AGM 3 Longview
581 Halaula Victory, VC2-S-AP2
707 Hamilton Victory, VC2-S-AP2
839 Hampden-Sydney Victory, VC2-S-AP2 /WSAT (1597)/USAT
579 Hannibal Victory, VC2-S-AP2
864 APA 240 Harnett, Cancelled VC2-S-AP5
724 Harvard Victory, VC2-S-AP2
25 APA 117 Haskell, VC2-S-AP5
547 Hastings Victory, VC2-S-AP2 /USAT - AK 254 Sgt. Truman Kimbro
809 Hattiesburg Victory, VC2-S-AP2
832 Haverford Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
865 APA 241 Hempstead, Cancelled VC2-S-AP5
26 APA 118 Hendry, VC2-S-AP5
113 Hibbing Victory, VC2-S-AP3/AF 56 Denebola
851 High Point Victory, VC2-S-AP2/AG 189 Rollins
28 APA 119 Highlands, VC2-S-AP5
708 Hillsdale Victory/USAT VC2-S-AP2
30 APA 120 Hinsdale, VC2-S-AP5
705 Hobart Victory, VC2-S-AP2/AG 190 Webster
599 Hobbs Victory, VC2-S-AP2
34 APA 121 Hocking, VC2-S-AP5
531 Honduras Victory, VC2-S-AP3
828 Hood Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
751 Hope Victory, VC2-S-AP2
822 Howard Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
754 Hunter Victory,, VC2-S-AP2
139 APA 173 Hyde, VC2-S-AP5

527 India Victory, VC2-S-AP3/WSAT (1597)/USAT
94 Iran Victory, VC2-S-AP3/AG 167 - AGTR 167 - AGTR 4 Belmont
528 Iraq Victory, VC2-S-AP3
866 APA 242 Iredell/Alcoa Corsair, VC2-S1-AP7

699 Jackson Victory, VC2-S-AP3
165 Jefferson City Victory, VC2-S-AP3
67 Jericho Victory, VC2-S-AP2
140 APA 174 Jerauld, VC2-S-AP5
114 Joliet Victory, VC2-S-AP3/AGS 23 Michelson
12 Joplin Victory, VC2-S-AP3

141 APA 175 Karnes, VC2-S-AP5
157 Kelso Victory, VC2-S-AP3
35 APA 122 Kenton, VC2-S-AP5
795 Kenyon Victory, VC2-S-AP2
142 APA 176 Kershaw, VC2-S-AP5
827 Kings Point Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
143 APA 177 Kingsbury, VC2-S-AP5
20 Kingsport Victory, VC2-S-AP3 /USAT - AK 239
638 Kingston Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
36 APA 123 Kittson, VC2-S-AP5
184 Knox Victory , VC2-S-AP3/AGM 7 Huntsville
154 Kodiak Victory, VC2-S-AP3
620 Kokomo Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
68 Koloa Victory, VC2-S-AP2

623 La Crosse Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
161 La Grande Victory , VC2-S-AP3/WSAT (1597)/USAT
38 APA 124 La Grange, VC2-S-AP5
117 APA 151 La Porte, VC2-S-AP5
643 Laconia Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
752 Lafayette Victory, VC2-S-AP2
601 Lahaina Victory, VC2-S-AP2
631 Lake Charles Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
718 Lakeland Victory, VC2-S-AP2
545 AK 236 Lakewood Victory, VC2-S-AP2
144 APA 178 Lander, VC2-S-AP5
794 Lane Victory, VC2-S-AP2
39 APA 125 Lanier, VC2-S-AP5
723 Laredo Victory, VC2-S-AP2
538 AK 229 Las Vegas Victory, VC2-S-AP2
118 APA 152 Latimer, VC2-S-AP5
145 APA 179 Lauderdale, VC2-S-AP5
119 APA 153 Laurens, VC2-S-AP5
146 APA 180 Lavaca, VC2-S-AP5
185 Lawrence Victory, VC2-S-AP3
535 Legion Victory, VC2-S-AP2
775 Lehigh Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT Lt. Bernard J. Ray
663 APA 195 Lenawee, VC2-S-AP5
148 Lewiston Victory, VC2-S-AP3/WSAT (1597)/USAT, VC2-S-AP3
13 Lincoln Victory, VC2-S-AP3 /WSAT (1597)/USAT
766 Lindenwood Victory, VC2-S-AP2/AG 184 Clemson
689 Linfield Victory, VC2-S-AP3
664 APA 196 Loban, VC2-S-AP5
582 Logan Victory, VC2-S-AP2
156 Loma Victory, VC2-S-AP3
147 Longview Victory, VC2-S-AP3
120 APA 154 Lowndes, VC2-S-AP5
739 Loyola Victory, VC2-S-AP2
665 APA 197 Lubbock, VC2-S-AP5
17 Luray Victory, VC2-S-AP3
90 Luxembourg Victory, VC2-S-AP3
867 APA 243 Luzerne, Cancelled VC2-S-AP5
121 APA 155 Lycoming, VC2-S-AP5
853 Lynchburg Victory, VC2-S-AP2
847 Lynn Victory, VC2-S-AP2/AG 182 Lynn

819 M. I. T. Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT Lt. Alexander R. Nininger
188 Macalester Victory, VC2-S-AP3
702 MacMurray Victory, VC2-S-AP2
603 Madawaska Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
868 APA 244 Madeia, Cancelled VC2-S-AP5
667 APA 199 - LPA 199 Magoffin, VC2-S-AP5
637 Mahanoy City Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
607 Malden Victory, VC2-S-AP2
109 Mandan Victory, VC2-S-AP3/USAT -AKV 5 AK 276 Sgt. Jack J. Pendleton
539 AK 230 Manderson Victory, VC2-S-AP2
872 Mankato Victory, VC2-S-AP3
668 APA 200 Marathon, VC2-S-AP5
869 APA 245 Maricopa, Cancelled VC2-S-AP5
821 Maritime Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT Pvt. Frederick C. Murphy
753 Marquette Victory, VC2-S-AP2
823 Marshall Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT - AP 189 Lt. Raymond O. Beaudoin
106 Marshfield Victory, VC2-S-AP3/AK 282 Marshfield
768 Maryville Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
578 Massillon Victory, VC2-S-AP2
541 AK 232 Mayfield Victory, VC2-S-AP2
666 APA 198 McCracken, VC2-S-AP5
870 APA 246 McLennan, Cancelled, VC2-S-AP5
871 APA 247 Mecklenburg, Cancelled, VC2-S-AP5
586 Medina Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
669 APA 201 Menard, VC2-S-AP5
670 APA 202 Meniffee, VC2-S-AP5
591 Mercer Victory, VC2-S-AP2/AG 179 Haverford
799 Meredith Victory, VC2-S-AP2
24 Meridian Victory, VC2-S-AP3
671 APA 203 Meriwether, VC2-S-AP5
886 Mesa Victory, VC2-S-AP2
7 Mexico Victory, VC2-S-AP3/WSAT (1597)/USAT
726 Middlebury Victory, VC2-S-AP2
693 Middlesex Victory, VC2-S-AP3/AG 174 Cheyenne
690 Midland Victory, VC2-S-AP3
555 APA 207 Mifflin, VC2-S-AP5
635 Milford Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
122 APA 156 Mellette, VC2-S-AP5
741 Mills Victory, VC2-S-AP2/USAT - AK 244 Sgt. Morris E. Crain
559 APA 211 Missoula, VC2-S-AP5
149 Minot Victory, VC2-S-AP3
585 Moline Victory, VC2-S-AP2
79 Monroe Victory, VC2-S-AP2
610 Montclair Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
560 APA 212 Montrose, VC2-S-AP5
632 Morgantown Victory, VC2-S-AP2
730 Mount Holyoke Victory, VC2-S-AP2
561 APA 213 Mountrail, VC2-S-AP5
837 Muhlenberg Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
576 Muncie Victory, VC2-S-AP2

820 N. Y. U. Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
107 Nampa Victory, VC2-S-AP3/WSAT (1597)/AK 258 - AKS 33 Antares
123 APA 157 -AK 258 -AKS 33 Napa, VC2-S-AP5
843 Nashua Victory, VC2-S-AP2
562 APA 214 Natrona, VC2-S-AP5
15 Navajo Victory, VC2-S-AP3
563 APA 215 - LPA 215 Navarro, VC2-S-AP5
564 APA 216 Neshoba, VC2-S-AP5
91 Netherlands Victory, VC2-S-AP3
639 New Bern Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
565 APA 217 New Kent, VC2-S-AP5
850 New Rochelle Victory, VC2-S-AP2
759 New World Victory, VC2-S-AP2
6 New Zealand Victory, VC2-S-AP3
124 APA 158 Newberry, VC2-S-AP5
711 Newberry Victory, VC2-S-AP2
542 AK 233 Newcastle Victory, VC2-S-AP2
791 Niagara Victory, VC2-S-AP2
100 Niantic Victory, VC2-S-AP3/AGM 6 Watertown
534 Nicaragua Victory, VC2-S-AP3
566 APA 218 Noble, VC2-S-AP5
807 North Platte Victory, VC2-S-AP2
703 Northeastern Victory, VC2-S-AP2
173 Northwestern Victory, VC2-S-AP3
696 Norwalk Victory/AK 279 Norwalk VC2-S-AP3
89 Norway Victory, VC2-S-AP3/WSAT (1597)/USAT
769 Norwich Victory, VC2-S-AP2
175 Notre Dame Victory, VC2-S-AP3

592 Oberlin Victory, VC2-S-AP2
619 Ocala Victory, VC2-S-AP2
784 Occidental Victory, VC2-S-AP2
655 APA 187 Oconto, VC2-S-AP5
687 Oglethorpe Victory, VC2-S-AP3
567 APA 219 Okaloosa, VC2-S-AP5
568 APA 220 -LPA 220 Okanogan, VC2-S-AP5
656 APA 188 Olmsted, VC2-S-AP5
569 APA 221 Oneida, VC2-S-AP5
609 Oneida Vidtory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
808 Oshkosh Victory, VC2-S-AP2
788 Ouachita Victory, VC2-S-AP2
719 Owensboro Victory, VC2-S-AP2/USAT - AK 253 Pvt. Joe E. Mann/AGM 4 Richfield
657 APA 189 Oxford, VC2-S-AP5

606 Pachaug Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
800 Pacific Victory, VC2-S-AP2
168 Paducah Victory, VC2-S-AP3
746 Pan American Victory, VC2-S-AP2
9 Panama Victory, VC2-S-AP3
748 Park Victory, VC2-S-AP2
854 Parkersburg Victory, VC2-S-AP2
856 Pass Christian Victory, VC2-S-AP2
885 Petersburg Victory, VC2-S-AP2
5 Philippines Victory, VC2-S-AP3
758 Phillips Victory, VC2-S-AP2
570 APA 222 - LPA 222 Pickaway, VC2-S-AP5
658 APA 190 Pickens, VC2-S-AP5
150 Pierre Victory, VC2-S-AP3
802 Pine Bluff Victory, VC2-S-AP2
571 APA 223 Pitt, VC2-S-AP5
633 Pittston Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
99 Plymouth Victory, VC2-S-AP3
87 Poland Victory, VC2-S-AP3
31 Pomona Victory, VC2-S-AP3 /WSAT (1597)/USAT
659 APA 191 Pondera, VC2-S-AP5
628 Pontotoc Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
782 Pratt Victory, VC2-S-AP2
587 Princeton Victory , VC2-S-AP2/AG 188 Radcliffe
537 AK 228 Provo Victory, VC2-S-AP2
740 Purdue Victory, VC2-S-AP2

789 Queens Victory, VC2-S-AP2
115 Quinault Victory, VC2-S-AP3

743 Radcliffe Victory, VC2-S-AP2/USAT - AK 242 Sgt. Andrew Miller
572 APA 224 Randall, VC2-S-AP5
672 APA 226 Rawlins, VC2-S-AP5
544 AK 235 Red Oak Victory, VC2-S-AP2
181 Reed Victory, VC2-S-AP3
767 Rensselaer Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
673 APA 227 Renville, VC2-S-AP5
797 Rice Victory, VC2-S-AP2
777 Rider Victory, VC2-S-AP2
709 Ripon Victory, VC2-S-AP2
647 Rock Hill Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
160 Rock Springs Victory, VC2-S-AP3
674 APA 228 Rockbridge, VC2-S-AP5
675 APA 229 Rockingham, VC2-S-AP5
676 APA 230 Rockwell, VC2-S-AP5
101 Rockland Victory, VC2-S-AP3/USAT/AK 259 Alcor
835 Rollins Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
804 Roswell Victory, VC2-S-AP2
651 Rushville Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
82 Rutgers Victory, VC2-S-AP2
660 APA 192 Rutland, VC2-S-AP5
104 Rutland Victory, VC2-S-AP3

152 Saginaw Victory, VC2-S-AP3
677 APA 231 Saint Croix, VC2-S-AP5
40 APA 126 St. Mary’s, VC2-S-AP5
546 Salina Victory, VC2-S-AP2
889 San Angelo Victory, VC2-S-AP2
713 San Mateo Victory, VC2-S-AP2
678 APA 232 San Saba, VC2-S-AP5
661 APA 193 Sanborn, VC2-S-AP5
662 APA 194 LPA 194 Sandoval, VC2-S-AP5
773 Santa Clara Victory, VC2-S-AP2
14 Sapulpa Victory, VC2-S-AP3
552 APA 204 Sarasota, VC2-S-AP5
627 Sedalia Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
23 Selma Victory, VC2-S-AP3
686 Seton Hall Victory, VC2-S-AP3/AGM 8 Wheeling
679 APA 233 Sevier, VC2-S-AP5
29 Sharon Victory, VC2-S-AP3
831 Sheepshead Bay Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
553 APA 205 Sherburne, VC2-S-AP5/AGM 22 Range Sentinel
554 APA 206 Sibley, VC2-S-AP5
108 Silverbow Victory, VC2-S-AP3
182 Simmons Victory , VC2-S-AP3/AG 168 - AGTR 168 - AGTR 5 Liberty
70 Sioux Falls Victory, VC2-S-AP2
116 Skagway Victory, VC2-S-AP3
685 Skidmore Victory, VC2-S-AP3/AG 160/AGM 1 Range Tracker
824 Smith Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
97 South Africa Victory, VC2-S-AP3
694 South Bend Victory, VC2-S-AP3/AGS 21 Bowditch
786 Southwestern Victory, VC2-S-AP2
845 Spartanburg Victory, VC2-S-AP2
605 St. Albans Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
849 St. Augustine Victory, VC2-S-AP2
158 St. Cloud Victory, VC2-S-AP3
596 St. John's Victory, VC2-S-AP2
735 St. Lawrence Victory, VC2-S-AP2/AK 255 Pvt. Leonard Brostrom
641 Stamford Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
830 Stetson Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT -AP 192 Sgt. Sylvester Antolak
825 Stevens Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT - AP 187 Pvt. Joe P. Martinez
737 Swarthmore Victory, VC2-S-AP2

556 APA 208 -LPA 208 Talladega, VC2-S-AP5
73 Taos Victory, VC2-S-AP2 /USAT
557 APA 209 Tazewell, VC2-S-AP5
558 APA 210 Telfair, VC2-S-AP5
179 Temple Victory, VC2-S-AP3
166 Terre Haute Victory, VC2-S-AP3
75 Texarkana Victory, VC2-S-AP2 /WSAT (1597)/USAT
611 Towanda Victory, VC2-S-AP2
810 Trinidad Victory, VC2-S-AP2
747 Trinity Victory, VC2-S-AP2
803 Tucson Victory, VC2-S-AP2
771 Tufts Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
593 Tulane Victory, VC2-S-AP2
829 Tusculum Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
682 Tuskegee Victory, VC2-S-AP3/AGS 22 Dutton
167 Twin Falls Victory, VC2-S-AP3/AGM 11 - AGS 37 Twin Falls

3 U.S.S.R. Victory, VC2-S-AP3/WSAT (1597)/USAT
683 Union Victory, VC2-S-AP3/AF 64 Perseus
4 United States Victory, VC2-S-AP3 /WSAT (1597)/USAT
85 United Victory, VC2-S-AP3

617 Valdosta Victory, VC2-S-AP2
781 Vanderbilt Victory, VC2-S-AP2
818 Vassar Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
785 Villanova Victory, VC2-S-AP2
597 Virginia City Victory, VC2-S-AP2

796 Wabash Victory, VC2-S-AP2/USAT -AK 241 Pvt. Francis X. McGraw
37 Waco Victory, VC2-S-AP3
594 Wake Forest Victory, VC2-S-AP2
720 Waltham Victory, VC2-S-AP2
887 Warwick Victory, VC2-S-AP2
842 Waterbury Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
852 Waterville Victory, VC2-S-AP2/USAT -AK 251 Lt. George W. G. Royce
840 Waycross Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
793 Wayne Victory, VC2-S-AP2
833 Webster Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
177 Wellesley Victory, VC2-S-AP3
589 Wesleyan Victory, VC2-S-AP2
155 West Lynn Victory, VC2-S-AP3
649 Westbrook Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
608 Westerly Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
186 Western Reserve Victory, VC2-S-AP3
176 Westminster Victory , VC2-S-AP3/WSAT (1597)/USAT
776 Wheaton Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
187 Whitman Victory, VC2-S-AP3
798 Whittier Victory, VC2-S-AP2
180 Willamette Victory, VC2-S-AP3
652 William and Mary Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
817 Williams Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
836 Wilson Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT - AP 190 Pvt. Sadao S. Munemori
640 Winchester Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
790 Winthrop Victory, VC2-S-AP2
646 Woodbridge Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
604 Woodstock Victory, VC2-S-AP2
779 Wooster Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT

590 Xavier Victory, VC2-S-AP2/USAT

725 Yale Victory, VC2-S-AP2/USAT - AK 243 Sgt. Archer T. Gammon
98 Yugoslavia Victory, VC2-S-AP3

626 Zanesville Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT

Sawyer, L. A. & Mitchell, W. H.: Victory Ships and Tankers (David & Charles, 1974)
Fahey, James C.: The Ships and Aircraft of the U. S. Fleet, New York: Ships & Aircraft, 1945
Silverstone, Paul H.: U. S. Warships of World War II, London: Ian Allan, 1968
Lenton, H. T. & Colledge, J. J.: Warships of World War II, London: Ian Allen
Jane's Fighting Ships, various editions
Combat Fleets of the World, various editions


Mount Victory today has established a reputation as a destination for antique and craft shopping, a charming walkable village with a historic business block where people come to shop, eat, train watch, enjoy a slower pace and friendly people. Annual events include the Village Park Easter Egg Hunt, Memorial Day Vintage Car Show, and the Antique Shop’s Christmas Open House. Mount Victory also include Ridgemont School, as well as 2 churches: The Methodist Church and The Church of Christ. The town also includes 4 eateries, The Belle Acre, Gopher Pizza, The Plaza Inn and the Mt. Victory Drive Thru. Mount Victory sits on the well traveled State Route 31 and is intersected by a main CRX rail line.

Click to enlarge early plat map

Other pioneers began to move into the area, but we will concentrate on the Dille brothers: Cyrus, Amos, Abraham, and Samuel. Cyrus came to the township in November, 1830, and bought land on which Mt. Victory was to be founded. He had 11 children, the firstborn being Ezra, who would later lay out the town of Mt. Victory. Samuel came here at the same time as Cyrus as a single man, returned home to marry, and lived in Hale Township for a short time. He later moved to Iowa. Abraham moved here in 1834 and stayed for the rest of his life which ended in 1883. Amos arrived here in 1884 but only stayed for a short time. In 1833, the county was growing and it was separated from Logan County to organize its own government. Kenton was chosen as the seat of the county and the first elections of county officials were held the same year. After all of this, the settlement of Hale Township proceded more rapidly.

Some early pioneers were: Daniel Baldwin 1835 Jonathan Marsh 1835 Thomas Dunson 1835 Harvey Buckminster 1838 He opened an inn along road to Grassy Point Abner Snoddy 1840 Thomas McCall 1840 Cleared 150 acres between Mt. Victory and Kenton Peter Marsh 1842 Moses Kennedy 1844 settled along Panther Creek Obediah Williams 1848 purchased a tract north of Rush Creek Others were Harrison Lake, Simon Schertzer, Christopher Richardson, John Richardson, Barnet Richardson, Uriah Baldwin, and C. Copp. The establishment of a business was understandably slow before towns were founded and roads were built. In this township, business consisted largely of the hotel near Grassy Point and two mills. Around 1838 to 1840, Moses Kennedy constructed a sawmill and later added a corn mill on Panther Creek, and in 1849, James Smith opened a mill along the South Branch of Panther Creek. As the population grew, the problem of a final resting place for the dead was solved by burying on the family farm.

In 1837, the Eddy Cemetery was started and many found this to be their burial place until the Dille Cemetery was started in 1841 on land belonging to Cyrus Dille. The town of Mt. Victory grew up around this tiny cemetery which is located behind Richard Foreman’s on East Marion Street. The town’s founder, Ezra Dille, is buried there as well as his father, Cyrus Dille Sr.

Another necessity, as the area attracted more settlers, was that of a school. The first one opened December 1, 1839, in a log cabin. Enos Baldwin was the teacher. In 1840 or 1841, a round log house was built where the old Mt. Victory Stockyards was located. The teacher was either John Elder or Enos Baldwin. Religious services took the form of church meetings held in the home of Lewis Andrews by a circuit preacher of the Methodist Episcopal Church from 1832 to 1842. In that year, services began to be held in the schoolhouse and remained there until churches were established in the villages of Ridgeway and Mt. Victory.

The years immediately following the entrance of Ohio into the Union on March 1, 1803, were relatively peaceful in what was to become the Mt. Victory Community. The land then belonged, by the Treaty of Greenville, to various Indian Tribes. They hunted the vast forest, fished the streams, cultivated small amounts of corn and practiced their religions, leaving the white man in his settlements to the south comparatively alone. The white man, with few exceptions, settled northward to the treaty line but honored the sanctity of Indian land. This land, however, was the seed of a future conflict with British traders. These traders were understandably less than friendly to the Americans. On orders from Fort Detroit, Indians were encouraged to harass the American settlements. It was through these traders that they obtained rifles, shot, and powder. They became allies to the British in Britain’s disputes with the Americans.

Finally, the British practice of impressing American sailors into the British Navy ended all negotiation and the U. S. declared war on Britain. Ohio’s population was now close to a quarter of a million and a sizable force was mustered in Cincinnati under General Hull, a respected veteran of the Revolution and now Governor of the Michigan Territory. He was to march on and take Fort Detroit. On this march, Hull passed through what was to become Hardin County and detached a Colonel Duncan MacArthur to build a fort to guard his route. This fort was built on the bank of the Scioto in Buck Township in 1812. Today, markers can be found show the location of both Fort MacArthur and Hull’s Trace. Hull succeeded in capturing Detroit, but surrendered it shortly thereafter. William Henry Harrison then led a second expedition through St. Marys and captured and held Detroit. With the Battle of Lake Erie, the war ended in the Ohio region.

At the close of the War of 1812, Fort MacArthur became a garrisoned outpost in the Indian Territory. The Indians had been crushed as a fighting force by the war and the death of Tecumseh, so the duty of the Fort was probably that of guarding a military road and offering refuge to travelers to Detroit. In 1817, at the head of the rapids of the Maumee River, a treaty was signed which ceded much of the land of Northwest Ohio to the government, and Hardin County became open to settlement. The county, however, as it had little white population, was attached to Logan County until such time as an increase in settlers warranted the establishment of a county seat. It was in the same year that the first white family came to the area. Alfred Hale, after whom this township was named, and his wife Mary located at Fort MacArthur and resided there until the death of Mary in 1824.

During that time, a son , Jonas, was born to them, the first white child born in the county. Hale, being a hunter, neither owned nor cultivated land. Relatives of Duncan MacArthur were the first real settlers in the County. They arrived in 1818, built a cabin and returned home to escort their families back to the homestead. Rumors of an Indian uprising kept them away for four years, but in 1822 they returned to become permanent residents of McDonald Township. The first settler in Hale Township was Levi D. Tharp, who built a cabin in the western part of the Township near Grassy Point in 1828. He owned no land, and after several years, he moved away. James Andrews was the first permanent landowning resident of the Township, locating here in October of 1829 at the age of 24. He cleared his farm and lived a long and fruitful life.

In 1849 Cyrus Dille died and his eldest son, Ezra, had a town laid out on his father’s estate two years later. The land was to be sold at an administrator’s sale and Samuel McCullough, who had just laid out the village of Ridgeway, made an attempt to buy the land at the public sale and turn it into a pasture, thus preventing the formation of a competing village. Ezra Dille, however, succeeded in purchasing the property and on his return home was asked by Thomas McCall who had bought the land. When informed that Ezra had been able to procure it, Mr. McCall exclaimed “Victory, Victory–We shall name the town MOUNT VICTORY!” Thomas McCall was ‘Uncle Tommy’ to those who knew him and he is credited with naming the Village of Mt. Victory. He was born in Washington County, Pennsylvania, December 10, 1810, the son of William and Elizabeth McCall.

Thomas married Judith Bloomfield, a native of Crawford County, Pennsylvania. In January, 1842, they settled in Hale Township. He lived in what is now listed as 20555 West Mansfield Road, CR 199. It was one of the first frame houses built in the mid 1800’s. William Bealer, a local cabinetmaker, helped to build this house. He told his grandsons, Clay and Cliff Bealer that when digging the basement, they unearthed skeletons of human remains believed to be the remains of the Mound Builders, the very first known settlers in Hale Township, Hardin County, Ohio. At the time of settlement, there was not a settler or improvement on the road from Mt. Victory to Kenton. The house had a trap door in the kitchen with a rug over it and a table setting on the rug and was used as a safe house for fugitive slaves making their way north on the underground railroad.

Thomas McCall helped to blaze the trail from Mt. Victory to Kenton. They cleared 150 acres of heavy forest in the area. A broad ax used in the clearing of this land is now owned by Ross Baird, great-great-grandson of Uncle Tommy McCall. He owned 311 acres of good land with the improvement of fences and buildings. Thomas was the father of 15 children with 8 surviving. They were Malissa, Lucindia, Susannah, Lewis B., William, Thomas Morris, Matilda Jane, and Solmon P. Chase. Susannah married James Clark Bird. Their children were: William Thomas, Lorena Lou, Granger Clinton, Chase L., and Bessie. Lucindia married a Bolen and had a daughter Iva Lou, who married Walter Baird, Grandfather of Ross Baird. Submitted by Daisy Bird Gillen and Evangeline Bealer.

UNDERGROUND RAILROAD and the Secret Door – a true account by the late Evangeline Bealer
During the early days of the Underground Railroad, there were in excess of 3000 slaves transported through the Coffin network of safe houses in Cincinnati. The runaways were dispatched North to members of the Williams Family and to the anti-slavery movement . Many of these people followed the Shawnee Trail toward Pickrelltown and Bellefontaine. In Pickrelltown, they were met by Asa Williams, Manhon Pickrell, and Joshua Marmon. Other Quakers and sympathizers to the cause provided safe houses. Due to the secret nature of the mission, names are difficult to obtain. The home of Asa Williams was a safe house where fugitives stayed until their strength and health improved. His home had a secret wall in the basement which appeared to be a root cellar, but was actually a nice size room that could comfortably hold six people. Obadiah Williams, son of Henry and Nancy Williams, signed on work at the Pickrelltown Mill while quite young. One of his many duties when he was a teenager was to transport grain and supplies to the Cincinnati Market. His first visit to Cincinnati, he watched human beings sold on a common auction block. To his horror, he saw families torn apart and taken to different plantations. His compassion for their plight made an impression that endured a lifetime. When he returned home he related his story to his best friend and future bride, Sarah P. Williams, daughter of Asa and Elizabeth Branson Williams. He vowed that he would do anything in his power to end such brutality.

Soon after his trip to Cincinnati, a fugitive named Meshach, ‘Mose’, Moxley came to Pickrelltown. Obadiah and Mose became very close friends. Mose was an expert gunsmith and was considered a very valuable slave. Therefore, Mose was fearful for the safety of his wife and children. After much prayer and careful planning, it was agreed that Obadiah would go to Cincinnati with supplies and attempt to find the wife and children, purchase them, bring them back to Pickrelltown to a grateful Mose. Later, the Moxley Family moved to Bellefontaine and established a gun shop. There he maintained a good business and his guns are now highly prized collectables. Other slaves that were assisted through the Pickrelltown Station were the Mendenhalls. George C. Mendenhall, a plantation owner from North Carolina, sent 28 of his slaves to Asa Williams and Joshua Marmon under the protection of his field foreman, John White. The Deed of Emancipation of George C. Mendenhall was received and recorded July 2, 1885, by Jas Luster, Clerk, Logan County, Ohio. The deed was signed by witnesses: Asa Williams Exaim Johnson John White. By order of the deed, 28 people were freed and from that day forward, they should be called Mendenhall.

This activity continued into Hardin County:
Obadiah Williams, (1821 to 1905), Sarah Williams (1820 to 1902)
On November 6, 1845, Obadiah and Sarah were married and they had eight children: Thomas Clarkson Genetta Harrison one died in infancy Esther Ann Charles Stanton Mary Edward Elven Lydia I. Together they continued to assist runaway slaves. Early in their marriage, they contrived a way to effectively answer the questions of federal agents, bounty hunters, and slave hunters without actually telling a lie. They agreed that anyone entering their home would be referred to as a ‘guest’. The young ‘conductors’ were dispatched to the Hardin County area for more efficient contact with the Old Sandusky Trail (Shawnee Trail). They purchased a tract of timberland 1 1/2 miles South of what is now Mt. Victory. The land deed dated August 2, 1848. Located on the north side of Rushcreek, a part of the Virginia Survey. The land was purchased from a soldier of the War of 1812, having been granted by President Martin Van Buren.

A temporary cabin was built about a quarter of a mile off of the Mud Pike now known as State Route 31. A new frame house was put in construction in front of the cabin. This house was equipped with a guest room where many ‘guests’ were respected for their courage and will for freedom. The new house is still occupied by a great great granddaughter, Joan Elliott Wagner, at 1948 Elliott Lane., State Route 31. The original cabin was torn down in the early 1930’s.

On one occasion, a family of fugitives had spent the night in the Guest Room. When morning came breakfast was prepared and was being eaten when Sarah glanced out the window and saw two finely dressed men on very fine horses approaching the house. With no time to waste, Obadiah walked out the door to greet the visitors and to care for their horses. He talked to them and answered their questions and told them his wife was preparing breakfast. Sarah cleared the kitchen of all evidence of the first breakfast while her guests settled down in the guest room. When the house resumed its peaceful order and breakfast was well on its way, Sarah went to the porch and motioned for everyone to come in to breakfast. Obadiah and the federal agents discussed plans for the day. They would search the forest and the banks of Rush Creek over to the next pike, now the West Mansfield Road. When the men were well out of sight, Sarah hitched the horses to a special wagon and then loaded her guests into its safety. Sarah made her way north toward the next safe house where a cabin stood. The site is now 361 South Main St., Mt. Victory. After securing the safety of her precious cargo, she returned home. She washed the bedding, cleaned the guest room, and began to prepare the evening meal. That night all was well and the federal agents slept in the same bed that the fugitive guests had slept in the night before. Many federal agents and slave hunters came to the Williams home. One agent was quoted as saying, ‘Obadiah Williams is the best slave hunter in the territory.’ However, not one fugitive was ever captured at his safe house. I really believe it was Sarah’s cooking that brought them back.
–by Evangeline Bealer, great great granddaughter of Obadiah Williams and town historian –

ANCIENT BURIAL MOUNDS (Glacial Kame Culture)
Ancient Burial Mound and its Contents, Hardin County, Ohio
Letter Written by John B. Matson. M.D. to Judge John Barr, Cleveland, December 10, 1869
Dear Sir, –In the fall of 1856, in Hardin County, Ohio, near the Bellefontaine and Indiana Railway, between Mt. Victory and Ridgeway, I commenced removing a gravel bank for the purpose of ballasting a part of the above named railroad. I learned shortly after my arrival there, that the bank was an ancient burial ground. This information caused me to examine the ground, and note discoveries.
…The mound covered an area of one and a half acres being covered with an orchard of apple trees, then in bearing…The mound was what I would call double the larger and higher part to the west. About two-thirds of the mound was embraced in this part. The eastern part, presenting the appearance of a smaller hill having been pressed against the other, leaving a depression between them of three or four feet, below the highest point of the smaller and five or six feet below a corresponding point of the larger.
…On the north side of the eastern portion, under an oak tree stump (150 years old by growths) was the remains of the largest human bones I have ever seen. The joints of the vertebra seemed as large as those of a horse… I found in this part of the mound the remains of at least fifty children, under the age of eight years some with two, others with four incisors some with eight, and others with no teeth.
Source: Howland, H. G., Atlas of Hardin county, Ohio. Philadelphia,
R. Sutton & co., 1879, pg 323 / 324

Mount Victory History > EARLY SCHOOLS
The first school located in the village of Mt. Victory was ‘The Rough and Ready’ one-room schoolhouse. The building was opened to Mt. Victory and Hale Township students in 1839. It remained open until 1852, when it was replaced with a frame-structure building built on the southern side of Marion Street. That school was replaced eight years later when a school was opened at the corner of Main and Taylor Streets at what is now the Henry Martin Memorial Park. The school was moved to its present location 15 years later. The brick building had four rooms and was later enlarged to six when the high school was added. The high school was open to anyone who passed the entrance exam. By 1912, it was time to tear down the old building to make way for a new school. As one-room schools in the area closed, more students were getting their education in Mt. Victory. The brick building was called Mt. Victory-Dudley School in recognition of the Dudley Township students who attended. In 1938, the building was remodeled, with new classrooms, a cafeteria, farm shop, and gymnasium added to the existing building. In the early 1960’s, the state was pressuring smaller schools to join together.

There was much division in the community about where the school should go. Many, especially those living in the northern parts of the district, favored sending the Mt. Victory students to Kenton. Others looked to neighboring towns to join together to form a new district. Feelings ran strongly for both plans. Board of education members, Lloyd Dickinson, President Fannie Stough Dr. Robert Thomas Dick Connelly and Clay Van Atta were left to make the decisions affecting the future of the school. Thomas and Van Atta favored the Kenton proposal and brought the issue to a vote. With the vote tied at 2-2, Dickinson broke the tie by voting to remain at Mt. Victory. A plan to make Mt. Victory a part of a five-school district was presented. Mt. Victory would join Ridgeway, Byhalia, West Mansfield, and Rushsylvania to form a new district. Land was donated in the center of the five communities for the purpose of building the new school, said Stough. But the plan was rejected by officials who didn’t want the district covering three counties. While the school board attempted to determine the school’s future, there was plenty of pressure put on the members. Stough said people would telephone her house and begin telling her what they thought of her. She just laid the phone on the counter and went about her business. ‘It was terrible,’ she said. Everyone had the opinion that we needed to consolidate, Dickinson remembered. ‘So the next thing to do was to start talking with Ridgeway,’ he said. The plan was approved by both boards. The superintendent would come from Mt. Victory. Two members of the new school’s board would come from Mt. Victory and three from Ridgeway. A contest was held to decide what to call the new school. ‘I always liked Vickway,’ said Dickinson. But the Ridge from Ridgeway was added to the Mont from Mount Victory to make Ridgemont. The school colors were taken from the green of Mt. Victory Green Devils and the gold from the Ridgeway Tigers. A new mascot was needed. At a board meeting, Stough suggested Golden Gophers. ‘I liked Minnesota at that time and made the suggestion. Nobody else suggested anything else, so that was it.’

An outside consultant was named to determine which building would be the high school and which would house the elementary students. Ridgeway was named as the high school site. Mt. Victory would house grades 4-8 with the first three grades remaining in their home schools. This changed two years later when all the elementary students went to Mt. Victory and grades 7-12 attended classes in Ridgeway. In the Fall of 1993, the remodeling of the high school was completed. A large section of the old school was razed and replaced with a new facility, which includes a new gymnasium, library, classrooms, and vocational agriculture shop. Vocational education is offered to the Ridgemont students at Hi Point Career Center in Bellefontaine.

Ridgemont Elementary built in 1926 was originally located at north Elm and Taylor Street. The c.1926 building was raised in 2016.
A new Ridgemont school was built and completed in 2015 at the west end of Taylor St on farm land donated by the Elliott family. The new school combines both elementary and high school and is noted for being a model of contemporary 21st century education.

The Black and White School was built in 1886 by black families who were former slaves or descendants of slaves. It is believed to be one of the first integrated schools in Ohio. The black families invited the neighboring white children to was needed. The school still stands on the corner of SR 31 and CR 190 near the path of the Underground Railroad on the Old Sandusky Trail. It is now a private residence with a historic marker in the front yard. Submitted by Daisy Bird Gillen and Evangeline Bealer –

Mount Victory History > FIRE DEPARTMENT

Little is known about the Fire Department until about 1940. What we do know is the village had a hand-pulled piece of equipment with a stationary engine and pump. This was pulled to a fire cistern (a hole full of water with a lid) near the fire scene. The Fire Chief was Walter Thompson. Later, a Studebaker truck was purchased with a pressure tank on it that held water and soda. At a fire, caustic acid would be added. This reacted with the soda to create pressure that forced the water onto the fire. Floyd White mixed the acid with water. H. B. ‘Shorty’ Keller served as Fire Chief in the late 1930’s.

In 1942, Marlowe Simpson became Chief and Richard Strahm served as Asst. Chief. During this period, the first pumper truck was purchased in 1947 through the efforts of the Lions Club. Fire protection was then extended to Hale and Washington Townships in 1954 when the first tanker truck was purchased. The equipment was stored on East Taylor Street in the end of the brick building where Gopher Pizza is now. Marlowe Simpson stored the tank truck in LevanÍs Garage where the Drive Thru is now. When the fire station and town hall was built in 1956, the equipment was moved there. A 500 cpm. fire pumper was purchased in 1958 to replace the 1947 pumper. This truck is still in use as a reserve engine. In 1965 the original tank truck was replaced with a Ford Wilco 1500 gallon tank truck. In 1970, Dudley Township became a full member of the association by purchasing an additional 1970 Ford Wilco 1500 gallon tank truck. The name was changed to Mt. Victory Hale Washington Dudley Township Fire Association. In 1976, a new Ford Sutphen 1000 cpm. pumper was purchased necessitating the addition to the existing fire station. In 1981, Richard Strahm retired as Asst. Fire Chief and Charles Mowery filled that position. In 1982, Marlowe Simpson retired with 40 years of service as Chief. Charles Mowery then became Fire Chief with James Moore as Asst. Chief. In 1982, the grass truck was built by the firemen. No major truck purchases were made since then, but new equipment was added including self-contained breathing apparatus, turnout gear, positive pressure ventilation system, foam equipment, automatic nozzles, dump tank system, and large diameter fire hose.

In 1986, James Moore resigned as Asst. Chief and Richard Foreman filled that position. In 1999, the Mt. Victory Hale Washington Dudley Township Fire Association was dissolved and the Southeast Hardin Northwest Union Joint Fire District was created. Since the creation of a Joint Fire District, two new fire levies have passed. The Seyfert Potato Chip building on South Wheeler Street has been purchased. A custom Sutphen Quint Combination Ladder and Pumper fire truck has been purchased and an addition is being added to the Seyfert building. This will become the futurehome of the Fire Department and Ambulance Squad. Over the years, many people have served the community as firefighters. One example is Julia Foreman who has just retire as radio operator with 28 years of faithful service. The present officers are: Charles Mowery, Fire Chief Richard Foreman and Dennis Hinton, Asst. Chiefs Charles Long and Kurt Creamer, Captains Robert Kemmere and Robert Rowe, Lieutenants Robert Taylor, Safety Officer Cathy Mowery Lowery, President and Public Information Officer Serving with the above-mentioned are 20 additional dedicated men and women firefighters.

Mount Victory History > CHURCHES
The first sermon ever preached in Hale Township was by Thomas B. Green, a local preacher in the Methodist Episcopal Church at the home of Lewis Andrews in February, 1832. A class was organized at this meeting composed of James Andrews and his wife Mary, and Lewis Andrews and his wife Mary. The first family Bible and hymn book were bought by James Andrews. The Bible cost $4.00, half a monthÍs wages in that day. The first circuit preacher was Rev. Thomas Sims. About the year 1850, the Methodist Church changed and a new organization was formed. Meetings were held in the Old Rough and Ready School situated on the James Smith farm about a mile West of Mt. Victory. The place of meeting was soon changed again to a new schoolhouse East of town on the land afterward owned by W. H. Boyd. Later, the building was moved across the road and was used as a residence by Wm. P. Wooley and family. In the Fall of 1855, the meeting place was again changed to the United Brethren Church on what is now South High Street. It stayed there until 1860 when the unfinished Baptist Church was bought of Isaac Pennock for $140.00. The building which stood on the present church lot was completed and dedicated for service in 1861. This house served the people until the Spring of 1879, when it was sold to G. M. McDonald and moved off the church lot. Later, it was moved to North High Street where it again served as a church for several years, being used by different denominations.

It has since been moved to the John Willauer farm, just North of town, where it was remodeled into a barn. A substantial brick church was dedicated on the present church lot on November 30, 1879, by Dr. C. H. Payne of Delaware, Ohio, at the cost of $3300.00. After 24 years, it was decided that a larger church was needed and it was torn down in March of 1903. Material worth about $1000 was recycled into the new building. On May 3, 1903, the cornerstone was laid for the present church on North Main Street. It cost $15,000.

In the year, 1899, the Mt. Victory Church of Christ’s sister church in the village of Ridgeway was a thriving church and its influence was felt in the Southern part of the county. In one of their Round Table Discussions which they were conducting on the subject, ‘What Was Your Call of Macedonia?’, Mrs. William Wallace, better known as ‘Aunt Mollie’, suggested to Robert Moffett, who was working for the State Board located in Cleveland, the need of having a Church of Christ in Mt. Victory. She succeeded in interesting Mr. Moffett in the project. So, we see the State Board of Ohio facing a difficult challenge in the year 1900. Meetings were conducted in the City Hall during the months of February and March. Through the efforts of evangelists, they succeeded in influencing enough people to secure a charter for the Church of Christ. Establishing this church called for a great deal of hard work and sacrifice.

The State Board supplied what was lacking in funds. For a number of years, the State Board hired the minister. Under the ministry of I. A. Randall, the debt to the State was paid and the mortgage burned. The main auditorium was completed and dedicated November 4, 1902, by Lowell Lee Carpenter. No other minister in the organization has dedicated so many churches. He had 752 to his credit. The Men’s Class, under the leadership of M. O. Harvey, felt the need for a place for social affairs and constructed the basement. As the membership increased, much difficulty was encountered in trying to instruct primaries, juniors, and adult classes in the auditorium, so a second addition was started on June 12, 1918, and it was finished in 1919. P. H. Welshimer from Canton, Ohio, rededicated the church on March 16, 1919. Mr. Welshimer was hired and he had the largest Sunday School in our organization. In 1954, the Board was looking for a suitable piece of land to build a new parsonage. It was purchased from StevensonÍs and Russel Hardin drew up the plans for the house. In November, 1954, financing and contruction began. In June 1955, the parsonage was all done and the landscaping finished. One hundred and one years have passed since opening the Church of Christ. It is a church setting on the corner of Main and North Streets beckoning all to come worship.

Our Reviews

These are very good people, I'll tell you why! I wrecked our Traverse Friday morning. It was totaled and we were stranded at home but we had to have a car. I had known the used car manager Derek Schnepp from when we bought the Traverse a little over a year ago. He got us to Alex Davidson one of the sales professionals. I told him about our issue and that we were stuck. He told us not to worry a car was on the way to get us. We made it to the lot this was Saturday and it was busy due to the sale they were having. We met Alex and even though he was still with a customer he took a moment to greet us and soon as he was done, did a great job helping us choose a 2017 Ford Fusion. We had one slight problem we were not able to close on the car that day due to our insurance working to get our Traverse paid off the bank was closed we asked if we could take the car home knowing that we put a deposit down and our bank pre-approving the loan. And we were praying for a miracle. Our luck looked like it ran out when Alex told us the car had to stay there due to policy. However, they did the unthinkable! Alex pointed out the window and said but we can give you a loaner car ( a new Equinox very nice ). We were nearly in tears we never thought a dealership would care enough to go the extra mile to help us. That simple act of kindness helped us get to work on Monday get to the bank on Tuesday to sign papers on the car and we got the car that afternoon. It was the cleanest used car we had bought in a long time. And something that doesn't happen anymore They made sure the tank was full before we drove off the lot. That did not happen when we bought our Traverse from a very popular Chevy dealership in St. Joesph the year before. We had to demand that they put enough gas in it to get to the gas station we got a quarter of a tank the detail job was not very detailed it was still in fact dirty. Integrity in the car business is everything it's what makes us want to return to that dealer when buying or servicing a vehicle. We paid 17,650 dollars for the car we bought. That's not much compared to a 60 thousand dollar truck. Often you are the second-rate customer at some dealers when buying a used car under 20 thousand bucks. But we were treated with the utmost care and respect at Victory Chevy. We are truly grateful for their care and service in making sure we were taken care of and we were able to get to work pick up the kids get groceries. That seems trivial but when you don't have a way to get there it's a big deal. You get what you pay for and we feel that we got more than a car we got a friend in Victory Chevrolet and we are so thankful for their help and we will continue to do business with them again. We were so impressed with their staff and how they treated people. I applied for a tech job there. Ken the service manager is a great person who cares about his customers and it reflects in the rest of his team I have not met one person working there that wasn't kind, respectful, or helpful, and willing to go out of their way to help! Thank You all for coming to our rescue in our time of need. We are very grateful to you all! You all are the best! Best Regards Tucker and Sharon Herndon proud customers,

Our History

Sharon Daugherty is the Founding Pastor of Victory in Tulsa, Oklahoma, which she, along with her late husband, Pastor Billy Joe Daugherty, established in 1981. Together the Daughertys established Victory Christian School, Victory Bible College, Victory World Missions Training Center, and the Tulsa Dream Center in Tulsa, Oklahoma, which provides food, clothing, medical, educational, and recreational services to the community.

Sharon transitioned the position of Lead Pastor to her son, Paul Daugherty, in 2014. Through the years Sharon has been a worship pastor, songwriter, and continues to teach at Victory Bible College. She and her son have hosted Victory in Jesus, a daily broadcast transmitted via satellite to more than 200 nations. She is the author of several books including Known by Your Fruit, Avoiding Deception, and What Guys See that Girls Don’t or Do They?

Sharon is a graduate of Oral Roberts University with a Bachelor of Music Education Degree. She also attended Christ For the Nations Bible Institute in Dallas, Texas. She serves on the Board of Victory, the Tulsa Dream Center, Oral Roberts University Theology Department, and is the Oklahoma State Director for Christians United for Israel. Sharon is the mother of four children and eight grandchildren. All four of Sharon’s children serve in ministry in various locations of the United States.

America’s Patriotic Victory Gardens

During World War I, a severe food crisis emerged in Europe as agricultural workers were recruited into military service and farms were transformed into battlefields. As a result, the burden of feeding millions of starving people fell to the United States. In March of 1917¬—just weeks before the United States entered the war𠅌harles Lathrop Pack organized the National War Garden Commission to encourage Americans to contribute to the war effort by planting, fertilizing, harvesting and storing their own fruits and vegetables so that more food could be exported to our allies. Citizens were urged to utilize all idle land that was not already engaged in agricultural production—including school and company grounds, parks, backyards or any available vacant lots.

Promoted through propaganda posters advocating that civilians “Sow the seeds of victory” by planting their own vegetables, the war garden movement (as it was originally known) was spread by word of mouth through numerous women’s clubs, civic associations and chambers of commerce, which actively encouraged participation in the campaign. Amateur gardeners were provided with instruction pamphlets on how, when and where to sow, and were offered suggestions as to the best crops to plant, along with tips on preventing disease and insect infestations. The endeavor was so well received that the government turned its attention to distributing canning and drying manuals to help people preserve their surplus crops. In addition to the appeal to men and women, the federal Bureau of Education initiated a U.S. School Garden Army (USSGA) to mobilize children to enlist as “soldiers of the soil.” As a result of these combined efforts, 3 million new garden plots were planted in 1917 and more than 5.2 million were cultivated in 1918, which generated an estimated 1.45 million quarts of canned fruits and vegetables. By the end of World War I, the campaign promoting home gardens—which by then were referred to as “victory gardens”—had dropped off, but many people continued to maintain them.

Shortly after the United States was drawn into the Second World War, victory gardens began to reemerge. Once again, commercial crops were diverted to the military overseas while transportation was redirected towards moving troops and munitions instead of food. With the introduction of food rationing in the United States in the spring of 1942, Americans had an even greater incentive to grow their own fruits and vegetables in whichever locations they could find: small flower boxes, apartment rooftops, backyards or deserted lots of any size. Amid protests from the Department of Agriculture, Eleanor Roosevelt even planted a victory garden on the White House lawn.

Some of the most popular produce grown included beans, beets, cabbage, carrots, kale, kohlrabi, lettuce, peas, tomatoes, turnips, squash and Swiss chard. Through the distribution of several million government-sponsored pamphlets, fledgling farmers were advised to maximize their garden’s productivity by practicing succession planting, and were encouraged to record the germination rates of seeds, along with any diseases or insects they may have encountered, in order to minimize waste and improve their garden’s output the following year.

Throughout both world wars, the Victory Garden campaign served as a successful means of boosting morale, expressing patriotism, safeguarding against food shortages on the home front, and easing the burden on the commercial farmers working arduously to feed troops and civilians overseas. In 1942, roughly 15 million families planted victory gardens by 1944, an estimated 20 million victory gardens produced roughly 8 million tons of food—which was the equivalent of more than 40 percent of all the fresh fruits and vegetables consumed in the United States. Although the government’s promotion of victory gardens ended with the war, a renaissance movement has sprouted up in recent years in support of self-sufficiency and eating seasonally to improve health through local, organic farming and sustainable agriculture.

What Was Grown In Victory Gardens?

The United States government established the U.S. National War Garden Commission and distributed colorful posters and leaflets on the basics of how to garden, what to plant, how and what to use as fertilizers, both here and with our allies.

Vegetables were the largest crop followed by fruits and herb gardens. It is estimated that approximately one-third of the vegetables grown during World War II came from victory gardens.

Along with teaching people how to till and grow vegetables, the government and various women’s magazines also taught how to can and preserve the produce. Sales of pressure cookers increased dramatically.

Seed collection was encouraged, and many garden groups, already experienced in saving seeds, shared seeds, both in the United States and in the United Kingdom.

After World War I, my grandfather preserved their root crops in Pennsylvania by digging a large hole in the ground in the fall. He lined it with burlap and placed various root crops on layers of burlap with sand between them. Each week he would go and dig up a week’s worth of food.

The Smithsonian Institute in their flyer, “Grow Your Own Victory Garden!” (available online), lists the following plants used during the World War II era:

Start indoors: Tomatoes, basil, peppers, carrots, lettuce, kale, onion, peas, radishes

Basil, beans (pole, bush, and lima), corn and popcorn, cucumbers, eggplants, muskmelon, okra, peppers, pumpkin, both winter and summer squash, tomatoes, watermelon.

Fall and Winter Gardens (to extend the growing season)

Beets, broccoli, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, lettuce, kohlrabi, parsley, parsnips, radish, spinach, swiss chard, turnips.

For more information about Victory Gardens, contact: Smithsonian Gardens, Smithsonian Institution, P.O. Box 37012, Capital Galley, Suite 3300 MRC 506, Washington DC 20013-7012 or


The predecessor to Admiral Nelson's Victory, the First Rate HMS Victory commanded by Admiral Sir John Balchin was one of the most technically advanced ships in the world when she disappeared in 1744. Built with three decks, three elaborately decorated open galleries at the stern and armed with up to 110 bronze cannon, Victory was the last British First Rate to be armed entirely with bronze guns.

This man of war was constructed at Portsmouth Dockyard by master shipwright Joseph Allin between 1726 and 1737. Victory had a burden of 1,921 tons, a beam of
50ft. 6in. (approx. 15.5m), and a
gun deck 174ft.

One of the most impressive features was her full complement of ordnance, one of the largest consignments of bronze guns ever manufactured. This included 42-pounders, the most powerful and prestigious cannon used in naval warfare. Historically, the Victory marks the final flourish in the life of bronze cannon on English warships. Following the reign of King George I (r. 1714-1727), the Royal Navy phased out their production in favour of cheaper iron guns .

The ship was technically built to be equipped with:

  • Lower deck guns: 28 x 42-pounders
  • Middle deck guns: 28 x 24-pounders
  • Upper deck guns: 28 x 12-pounders
  • Quarterdeck guns: 12 x 6-pounders
  • Forecastle guns: 4 x 6-pounders

Launched in 1737, the Victory became the flagship of the Channel Fleet under Sir John Norris in 1741, later serving in 1744 under Sir John Balchin, one of the most respected and longest-serving fighting officers in Royal Navy history .

As the War of Austrian Succession waged, the Victory's final voyage began in July 1744, when she was dispatched as the flagship of Admiral Balchin, who had been abruptly called out of retirement to rescue a Mediterranean convoy blockaded in the River Tagus by the notorious Brest fleet of Admiral de Rochambeau. If unsuccessful, England risked losing the war. Accompanied by a large fleet of over 30 ships, Victory arrived in Portugal in late August, liberated the convoy and escorted it safely to Gibraltar. Victory then pursued the retreating French fleet to Cadiz.

During the course of the Victory's voyage back to England, the First Rate warship disappeared with all hands on 5 October 1744. Wreckage marked with the name 'Victory' washed ashore on the islands of Alderney, Guernsey and Jersey. This evidence led to the clear belief that she had been lost off the Casquets, a rocky group of islets northwest of Alderney, an area known as the graveyard of the English Channel.

The shipwreck of the Victory was never found, but Alderney's lighthouse keeper was subjected to a court martial for allegedly failing to keep the lights burning.

After over 250 years of searches conducted by many different expeditions, the shipwreck of the Victory was finally located in 2008, over 100 km from where contemporary reports said she was lost. Odyssey Marine Exploration's discovery of the wreck Victory solved one of the greatest mysteries in maritime history and also exonerated the ship's officers and crew as well as the Alderney lighthouse keeper. Odyssey's archaeological surveys reveal that the Victory likely sank as the result of the violent storm coupled with the ship's top-heavy design, gun-crowded upper decks and possibly rotten timbers.

Today and Yesterday

When I was writing this article, I found it fascinating to look at the old garden plans and watch some of the videos from the 40s. There were a lot of differences from the way many people garden then and the way we garden now.

It reminded me of my grandmother’s gardens, where everything was well tilled and in straight rows with labels. Hoeing was done monotonously by going up and down the rows with a hand or wheeled hoe.

The majority of plants were things that people would cook, preserve or put in a root cellar. They did not plant nearly as many varieties – such as greens – for fresh eating. Lettuce was considered more of a garnish and less of a meal. Kale, endive and mesclun greens were not as common as they are today.

Gardening has changed over the years. So many people have flocked to urban areas that gardeners had to find new methods to grow their favorite foods in a smaller place. Even people on large farms have embraced more efficient methods.

Today there are lots of different ways to grow a garden that don’t require the same investment in time and space. For instance, square foot gardening lets you grow a lot of food in a small space. Raised bed gardens are a smart alternative if you have heavy clay soil, as I do. You can even use water troughs to make a unique and efficient garden!

D-Day Strategy

No one thought victory was sure. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill had pestered Eisenhower and President Franklin Roosevelt for two years before D-Day, pleading that they avoid Normandy and instead pursue a slower, less dangerous strategy, putting more troops into Italy and southern France.

But the Germans had killed tens of millions of civilians and soldiers in the Soviet Union, and the Soviets desperately wanted the Allies to bleed the Germany army by opening up a second front of battle. Eisenhower thought it disgraceful to avoid Normandy, and thought Normandy was the best military move, not only to win but to shorten the war.

The Allies had long planned the invasion for a narrow window in the lunar cycle that would provide both maximum moonlight to illuminate landing places for gliders𠅊nd low tides at dawn to reveal the German’s extensive underwater coastal defenses. Poor weather forced Allied troops to delay the operation a day, cutting into that window. But in a stroke of luck, German forecasters predicted that gale-force winds and rough seas would deter the invasion even longer, so the Nazis redeployed some of their forces away from the coast. German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel even traveled home to celebrate his wife’s birthday, bringing her a pair of Parisian shoes.

On the night before the invasion, Eisenhower penciled himself an “In case of failure” note, to be published if necessary: “If any blame or fault attaches to the attempt, it is mine alone,” he wrote.

“Of all the documents we have from his time in the Army and in his eight years of the presidency, I regard that as our most significant document here,” Rives said of the collection at the Eisenhower Library. “It shows the character of the man who led it all.”

Eisenhower hated war. Years after the war ended, he gave a speech, with a paragraph that can be seen engraved in the marble stone wall surrounding his tomb in Abilene, Kansas.

𠇎very gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired signifies in the final sense a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and are not clothed. This world in arms is not spending money alone. It is spending the sweat of its laborers, the genius of its scientists, the hopes of its children. This is not a way of life at all in any true sense.”

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