Albermale AV-5 - History

Albermale AV-5 - History



(AV-5: dp. 8,761; 1. 527'4"; b. 69'3"; dr. 21'11"; s. 19.7 k.; cpl. 1,195; a. 4 5", 8 .50-car. mg.; cl. Curtiss)

The third Albemarle (AV-5) was laid down on 12 June 1939 at Camden, N.J., by the New York Shipbuilding Corp., launched on 13 July 1940; sponsored by Mrs. Beatrice C. Compton, the wife of the Honorable Lewis Compton, Assistant Secretary of the Navy, and commissioned at the Philadelphia Navy Yard on 20 December 1940, Comdr. Henry M. Mullinnix in command.

Albemarle remained at Philadelphia, fitting out, through midJanuary, 1941. Underway for Newport, R.I., on the morning of 28 January, the seaplane tender arrived at her destination on the 30th, and loaded torpedoes. She sailed the following day for Norfolk arriving on 1 February, and over the ensuing days remained in that area, loading bombs and pyrotechnics and calibrating her degaussing gear, before she sailed on her shakedown cruise on the afternoon of 6 February, setting course for Guantanamo Bay.

The seaplane tender shifted thence to Havana on the morning of 18 February, and over the days which followed her captain made the usual formal calls dictated by diplomatic protocol. In Havana harbor Albemarle dressed ship for Washington's Birthday, her 21-gun salute to the American national holiday returned gun-for-gun by the Cuban gunboat Yara. On the morning of 24 F ebruary, the ship got underway for the Canal Zone.

Diverted while en route, Albemarle anchored in the harbor at San Juan, Puerto Rico, on the morning of 28 February, and that afternoon received the official call of Rear Admiral Raymond A. Spruance Commandant of the 10th Naval District. That same day, she embarked 91 men from Patrol Squadron (VP) 51 and 61 from VP-52 for temporary duty and transportation, and sailed for Norfolk on the morning of 2 March. While en route, Comdr. Mullinnix was relieved as commanding officer by Comdr. H. B. Sallada.

Albemarle moored at Pier 7, Naval Operating Base (NOB)

Norfolk, on the afternoon of 5 March but lingered there for less than a day, getting underway the following afternoon for Philadelphia. She returned to the Philadelphia Navy Yard and spent the rest of March there, undergoing post-shakedown repairs.

The seaplane tender departed Philadelphia on 6 April, and arrived back at Norfolk the following afternoon, there she took on board depth charges and depth bombs. She sailed for Newport on the morning of 10 April, and soon after standing out into international waters past the Virginia capes, met her escort for the trip—six "flush-deck" destroyers, one of which was the illfated Reuben James (DD-245). That afternoon she fueled two of her escorts, Sturtevant (DD-240) and MacLeish (DD-220) at the same time, the former to starboard, the latter to port.

Albemarle then anchored in the harbor of refuge, off Block Island, late on the afternoon of 11 April and, accompanied by the destroyer Truxtun (DD-229), calibrated her radio direction finders. She then set out to finish her voyage up the eastern seaboard to Newport arriving at her destination late on the afternoon of 13 April. She there joined a host of warships ranging from the battleship Texas (BB-35) and the heavy cruisers Tuscaloosa (CA-37) and Wichita (CA - 5) to old and new-type destroyers and the destroyer tender Prairie (AI) 15).

While Albemarle had been on her shakedown, the United States determination to aid the British in the Battle of the Atlantic had resulted in the establishment, on 1 March, of the Support Force, commanded by Rear Admiral Arthur LeRoy Bristol, to protect the vital lifeline between the United States and Great Britain in the North Atlantic. It was formed around destroyers and patrol plane squadrons; the latter would be tended by small seaplane tenders (ax-destroyers and ax-minesweepers) and Albemarle.

Over the next few days, the seaplane tender operated in local waters, at Narragansett Bay, off Martha's Vineyard and Quonset Pomt, running drills of various kinds and conducting target practices. Rear Admiral Bristol came on board briefly on 28 April and wore his flag in Albemarle; that same day she embarked her former commanding officer, now Capt. Muliinnix, who was now Commander, Patrol Wing, Support Force; men of VP-56 reported on board in connection with advanced base operations as did men from VP-55. The following day, the planes from those two squadrons commenced night-flymg operations.

Albemarle, after again wearing Rear Admiral Bristol's flag on 2 May, departed Newport for Norfolk on 4 May, arriving the following day. The seaplane tender then cleared the Virginia capes on the morning of 9 May for Newport, and arrived there the following morning. She embarked officers and men of VP-52 on 12 May and then sailed the following morning (13 May) for Argentia, Newfoundland. Ultimately anchoring in Little Placentia Bay, Argentia, on the morning of 18 May, Albemarle was soon laying 13 seaplane moorings and gathering data on the weather of the region, establishing the advanced base for VP-52's operations from Argentia.

Over the days that followed in addition to tending the planes assigned to her, she also fueled a succession of destroyers. On 20 May, she received a visit from not only Rear Admiral Bristol— his first visit to Argentia, which he later made his headquarters— but Rear Admiral John H. Towers, the Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics, who both arrived separately in planes from VP-56. Both flag officers departed the following morning.

Twelve PBYs of VP-52 arrived at Argentia from Quonset Point on 18 May, and immediately commenced familiarization flights in the region—activities which were suddenly cancelled on 24 May. On that day, the German battleship Bismarck, which had left Norwegian waters shortly before in company with the heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen on what was to be a raidmg cruise into the Atlantic, encountered and destroyed the Britis-h battle cruiser HMS Hood. An anxious Prime Minister Winston Churchill concerned over the convoy routes that lay open to the powerfu; German battleship, immediately cabled President Roosevelt and requested American help.

Albemarle quickly refueled the aircraft that had been flying training missions that morning and readied others for the urgent mission. At 1440 the first group of four PBYs lifted off, followed a little less than three hours later, at 1720, by a second flight of seven. The pilots of the "Catalinas" were briefed for a long reconnaissance mission that would take them some 500 miles southeast of Cape Farewell, Greenland. They encountered foul weather and very dangerous flying conditions in the course of their extensive searches, did not find their quarry in the murk and were compelled by the fog and darkness to seek haven at various bays in Newfoundland, Labrador, Quebec, and adjoining islands.

Albemarle remained at Argentia until 12 June when she sailed for Norfolk, arriving on the 15th. There she loaded supplies stores, ammunition and gasoline, before getting underway to return to Newfoundland on 20 June. Escorted there by the destroyer MacLeish, Albem~arle touched at Halifax en route (22 June), and then proceeded on to Argentia, screened by MacLeish and Cole (DD-155), arriving on 24 June. The seaplane tender supported the operations of VP-71 VP-72 and VP-73 until she sailed again for Norfolk on 19 Juiv, in company with Dallas (DD-l99). Mooring at Pier 7, NOB Norfolk on the morning of the 25th, she shifted to the Norfolk Navy Yard later that same day and remained there, undergoing an availability, until 12 August.

Underway on that day, Albemarle, screened by the destroyer Broome (DD-210), sailed for Argentia once more, and reached her destination on the 16th, resuming her support of VP-73. She provided support for seaplane and frying boat operations out of Argentia through October, 1941. Clearing Little Placentia Harbor on 1 November, Albemarle sailed for Casco Bay, Maine, arriving there on the 3d; she then pushed on for Norfolk, arriving there on the 7th.

On the day that Japanese planes attacked the Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, 7 December 1941, Albemarle lay at NOB Norfolk embarking passengers before she was scheduled to get underway for anchorage at Lynnhaven Roads. On Christmas Day, 1941 the seaplane tender got underway for Newport and Argentia.

Ultimately, the ship proceeded to Reykjavik, Iceland, where

she would encounter the most severe weather she would see in her career. One particular day, 15 January 1942, was memorable. She set her special sea, anchor and steaming watches and put out both anchors with 120 fathoms of chain on the starboard and 60 to port, with her main engines turning over and steam up on all boilers. The winds were clocked at 71 knots, with occasional gusts of 95, forcing the tender to drag anchor.

The gale lasted until 19 January, and caused heavy damage among the ship's patrol planes. The ship nearly collided with Wichita on one occasion, and was in danger of fouling several other ships during that time. Her starboard anchor was fouled once, and she lost the port anchor. She ultimately left Reykjavik on 19 January, steaming initially at greatly reduced speed because of the tempest, snaping course for Argentia, where she would embark passengers for transportation to Norfolk.

Reaching Norfolk on 29January, Albemarle then proceeded to Narraganasett Bay, and there provided tender services to VP-73 as that squadron worked with torpedoes there. On 5 March Admiral Royal E. Ingersoll, Commander in Chief, Atlantic Fleet, made an unofficial call and inspected the ship informally. Albemarle completed her work with VP-73 and remained at anchor in Narragansett Bay until 3 April, when she proceeded to the Boston Navy Yard South Annex for an availability. Her overhaul lasted until 1 May 1942.

Upon completion of her refit Albemarle got underway for Newport, on 5 May, and there, over the next few days degaussed calibrated her direction finders, and loaded aircraft for transportation to Bermuda. Underway on 15 May with Mayo (DW-422) and Benson (DW-421) as escorts, the seaplane tender reached her destination on the 17th, unloaded the planes she had brought and immediately set sail for Narragansett Bay.

Relieving Pocomoke (AV-9) in connection with aircraft torpedo and submarine familiarization training, on the 19th, Albemarle remained anchored in Narragansett Bay until 12 August, providing torpedo services for a succession of squadrons: VP-94, VP-34 VP-33 and Torpedo Squadron 4. Underway on 12 August and escorted by the destroyers Livermore (DD-430), Kearny (DD- 432) and Rowan (DD-405), the submarine tender sailed for Norfolk. After her arrival there, Albemarle conducted gunnery exercises in the Chesapeake Bay operating area.

Shortly thereafter, escorted by Fletcher(DD) 445) and O'Bannon (DD-450), Albemarle sailed for the Canal Zone on 5 September 1942. Damaging her starboard screw at Coco Solo, the seaplane tender was ordered drydocked for repairs, after transiting the Panama Canal for the first time on 15 September, she entered dry dock at Balboa on the following day. Upon completion of repairs, she transported Army troops and marines to Rio Hato Panama, for two days of joint Army-Navy maneuvers.

Over the next several months, Albemarle acted as fast transport of aeronautical material and men to naval air bases in the Caribbean and the Pacific coast of South America as well as in the northern South Atlantic. During this time (September-November 1942), she visited Salinas, Ecuador; the air base at Seymour Island, in the Galapagos Islands San Juan and Bermuda primarily operating out of Colon and Baiboa and escorted by the seaplane tender Goldsborough (AVD-5).

Relieved on station by the seaplane tender Pocomoke (AV-9) Albemarle sailed from the Canal Zone on 13 November 1942 escorted by Goldsborough and the small seaplane tender Matagorda (AVP-22). Proceeding via San Juan, Trinidad and Bermuda, the seaplane tender reached Hampton Roads on 30 November having completed her longest sustained tour of duty outside the continental limits of the United States.

Over the next seven months, Albemarle shuttled between Norfolk and Guantanamo Bay, Trinidad, San Juan, and Bermuda on eight round-trip voyages. She varied this routine only slightly on the sixth and eighth of these, visiting Recife, Brazil for the first time (17 to 21 April 1943) on the sixth cruise and putting into the Canal Zone on the eighth. Her cargo included aviation gasoline and ammunition. Upon completion of that cycle of operations, she underwent repairs and alterations at the Boston Navy Yard between 15 June and 23 July 1943, departing on the latter date for Norfolk, whence she resumed her cargo-carrying and transport run to Trinidad, Recife, San Juan and Guantanamo Bay. On this voyage, her last on this run, she brought back 27 German prisoners of war, survivors of a sunken U-boat.

Underway from Norfolk on 16 September 1943, Albemarle sailed for the British Isles, escorted by the destroyers Bulmer (DD-222) and Barker (DD-213). Proceeding via Argentia, the sailed for Boston, arriving at the naval shipyard there on the 11th. She remained there until the 21 April, at which time she sailed for Newport, making arrival the same day. Departing Newport on the 23d with ComTraComdLant embarked, Albemarle returned to Norfolk on the 24th, remaining in that vicinity, conducting refresher training and routine upkeep, until 30 June, when she sailed for Boston.

Spending the 4th of July at Boston, Albemarle remained at that port for over a month, shifting to Newport on 5 August and then back to Boston on the 14th, remaining until 2 September, when she sailed for Norfolk. She then eondueted one more trip to Newport (22 to 31 October 1947) before coming back to Norfolk on 1 November. She then underwent a restrieced availability at the Norfolk Naval Shipyard from 1 December 1947 to 15 January 1948, for "special temporary alterations" in eonneetion with her next operation.

Albemarle sailed from Norfolk on 16 January 1948 for the Canal Zone, and upon completing the transit of the isthmian waterway reported for duty with Commander in Chief, Pacific Fleet, for temporary duty with Joint Task force "Switchman." Steaming thence to Terminal Island for final fitting out for her next task at hand, and arriving there on 4 February 1948, Albemarle sailed for Pearl Harbor on 1 March, in company with the radar picket destroyer Rogers (DDR - 76), proceeding thence to the Marshall Islands, arriving at Eniwetok on 16 March, to take part in Operation "Sandstone." Speeially altered for the task, Albemarle served as the laboratory ship during "Sandstone"—a three-detonation nuclear atmospherie cest series— shots "X-Ray" (15 April 1948), "Yoke" (1 May 1948) and "Zebra" (15 May 1948). Departing Eniwetok on 21 May 1948 Albemarle arrived at Pearl Harbor on the 27th, en route to Oakiand, Calif., which she reached on 4 June. Sailing for Norfolk on 11 June, she transited the Panama Canal on 20-21 June, and reached her ultimate destination on the 26th. She remained there undergoing overhaul at the Norfolk Naval Shipyard until 23 August, when she sailed for Guantanamo Bay, reaching "Gitmo" on the 27th for a three-day stay. Over the two weeks following her departure from Cuban waters, Albemarle visited Key West, Boston, and Newport before returning to Norfolk on 14 September.

Following an overhaul at Norfolk Naval Shipyard, Albemarle stood out of Hampton Roads on 8 February, and over the ensuing weeks visited a succession of ports and operating areas: Key West; Port-au-Prinee, Haiti, Kingston Jamaiea, and Bermuda interspersing these port visits with training out of Guantanamo Bay.

Returning to the Norfolk Naval Base on 19 March she remained there into the summer, ultimately sailing for Boston on 13 July for a port visit. Subsequently visiting Newport and New York, Albemarle returned to Norfolk on 27 July, and worked in the local operating areas into September. Further operations late in the summer and earlv yall of 1949 took the ship to Newport, New York, and the Norfolk local operating areas.

Standing out of Lynnhaven Roads on 2 March 1950, Albemarle subsequently worked out of Vieques, Puerto Rico, and Roosevelt Roads before she visited Martinique (15-17 March 1950), Grenada (17-19 March), Willemstad, Curacao (20-22 March) and Ciudad Trujillo, Dominican Republie (23-25 March). stopping briefly at Guantanamo Bay, the ship returned to Norfolk on 31 March and remained there until 11 may, when she got underway for the New York Naval Shipyard, arriving there the following day. Attached to the New York Group, Atlantic Reserve Fleet, the ship was decommissioned on 14 August 1950 and berthed at Brooklyn.

Shifted to the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard in February 1956, Albemarle was earmarked for conversion to tend Martin P6M "Seamaster" jet flying boats. She was reassigned from the Atlantic Reserve Fleet to the Commandant, 4th Naval District for conversion, effective 6 February 1956. Equipped with stern ramps and servicing booms to handle the "Seamaster," as well as a semi-sheltered area and a service drydock, the ship emerged from the conversion possessing the capability to serve as a highly mobile seadrome capable of supporting jet seaplanes anywhere.

Albemarle was recommissioned at Philadelphia on 21 October

1957, Capt. William A. Dean in command. After fitting out, she sailed for Norfolk on 7 December, and arrived there on the 10th. The ship then sailed for Guantanamo Bay on 3 January 1958, made port there on the 7th, remaining there for ten days and carrying out shakedown training before dropping down to Montego Bay, Jamaica. Proceedingthence back to Guantanamo
concluding her shakedown on 21 January, Albemarle steamed thence to San Juan and Trinidad, carrying out tending opera- with four squadrons of Martin P5M "Marlin" flying boats and participating in "Springboard" exercises. Albemarle arrived back at Norfolk on 9 April, remaining there only five days before proceeding back to Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, where she remained under overhaul through mid-July. Returning to Norfolk on 20 July, the ship got underway for operations in the North Atlantie on 14 August, and ranged as far as the Azores before returning to Norfolk on 16 September. Over the next two months Albemarle operated between Norfolk and Bermuda she rounded out the year at Norfolk, arriving there on 19 November and remaining until 2 March 1959.

Albemarle continued to operate out of Norfolk through 1959 and into 1960, although the eaneellation of the "Seamaster" program meant that the ship would never service the aircraft for which she had been reconfigured. Her ports and places visited in 1959 encompassed the naval air facility at Patuxent River, Md.; Pillsbury Sound, in the Virgin Islands; San Juan, and Savannah, Gal; Haiifax and Nova Scotia, Canada; New York City, Yorktown, Va., Port-au-Prinee; Guantanamo Bay and Bermuda. The ship eommeneed the year, 1960, operating out of San Juan, then moved in suecession to Bermuda, back to San Juan thence to Pillsbury Sound and Grand Turk Island, in the West Indies thence to Guantanamo Bay and Pillsbury Sound again, thence to San Juan and Guantanamo, into March.

Unloading ammunition at the Naval Weapons Station at Yorktown, between 12 and 15 July Albermrle moored at Norfolk eommeneing preparations for inactivation from 15 to 18 July before she proceeded to Philadelphia to unload material. Returnmg thence to Norfolk on 30 July, she continued inactivation preparations through the summer.

placed out of commission in reserve, on 21 October 1960 Albemarle was initially berthed with the Norfolk groud of the Atlantie Reserve Fleet pending her transfer to the Maritime Administration (MarAd) James River Fleet. Plaeed in the eustodial eare of MarAd, Albemarle was struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 1 September 1962.

On 7 August 1964, however, MarAd transferred the shipearmarked for conversion to a floating aeronautical maintenanec facility for helicopters—baek to the Navy. On 27 March 1965, the ship received the new name and elassifieation Corpus Christi Bay (T-ARVH-1), and was transferred to the Military Sealift Command (MSC) on 11 January 1966.

Converted at the Charleston (S.C.) Naval Shipyard, the ship emerged from the yard only faintly resembling her former self. Gone was the prominent seaplane ramp aft, replaced by a built-up superstructure topped by a helicopter landing pad measuring 50 by 150 feet. Previously, damaged helicopters had had to be transported back to the United States for refit, with the advent of this "new" ship type, repairs could be accomplished near the forward areas, damaged helos barged out to the ship and lifted on board by two 20-ton capacity cranes.

Accepted by MSC in January 1966, Corpus Christi Bay's first commander was Capt. Harry Anderson, who had a crew of 129 men, a fraction of the ship's original complement, under him. Accompanying the ship on her first deployment in support of forces m Vietnam was the Army's 1st Transportation Corps Battalion (Seaborne), 308 aircraft technicians and specialists under the command of Lt. Col. Harry O. Davis, USA. The ship operated out of Cam Ranh Bay, South Vietnam, during 1966.

Ultimately determined by MSC to be "in excess of current and future requirements," Corpus Christi Bay was taken out of service and berthed in ready reserve status at Corpus Christi Texas. Corpus Christi Bay (T-ARVH-1) was struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 31 December 1974. On 17 July 1975 the ship was sold to Brownsville (Texas) Steel and Salvage, Ine., and was scrapped subsequently.

Liberty Ships and Victory Ships, America's Lifeline in War (Teaching with Historic Places)

The officers and men of the Merchant Marine, by their devotion to duty in the face of enemy action, as well as natural dangers of the sea, have brought us the tools to finish the job. Their contribution to final victory will be long remembered.

--General Dwight D. Eisenhower on National Maritime Day, 1945¹

In the nearly 20 years following the end of the World War I, America's merchant fleet, including its cargo and passenger ships, was becoming obsolete and declining in numbers. A shipbuilding program began with the passage of the Merchant Marine Act of 1936. However, World War II provided the impetus to intensify those efforts eventually leading to a ship-building program that produced 5,500 vessels. Among them were 2,710 mass-produced ships known as Liberty ships. While reviewing blueprints of the Liberty ships at the White House, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who loved naval vessels and had an eye for design, mused aloud to Maritime Commission administrator Admiral Emory S. Land, "I think this ship will do us very well. She'll carry a good load. She isn't much to look at, though, is she? A real ugly duckling."² Thus, the Liberty ships received their second nickname, "the ugly ducklings."

When the United States entered World War II at the end of 1941, it had the beginnings of a great merchant fleet. But the lethal U-Boats, submarines of the German Navy, prowled the shipping lanes hunting American merchant ships. The Liberty ships proved to be too slow and too small to carry the tons of supplies the United States and her Allies would need to win the war. In 1943, the United States began a new ship-building program. These new ships would be faster, larger, and able to carry cargo long after the war was finished. These were the Victory ships.

The Liberty and Victory ships fulfilled President Roosevelt's prophetic words, serving the nation well in war and peace. Today, of the thousands of Liberty ships and Victory ships built during World War II, only a handful remain.

¹ War Shipping Administration, Press Release 2277(W), Maritime Day 1945--Military Leaders Praise Merchant Marine (18 May 1945).
² John G. Bunker,
Liberty Ships: The Ugly Ducklings of World War II (Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1972) p. 6.

About This Lesson

This lesson is based on the National Register of Historic Places registration files for the SS John W. Brown, the SS Jeremiah O'Brien (with photographs), the SS American Victory, and the SS Red Oak Victory, the National Historic Landmark nomination file for the SS Lane Victory (with photographs), and other sources. Jay Michalsky, a historical researcher, wrote this lesson. Jean West, education consultant, and the Teaching with Historic Places staff edited the lesson. This lesson is one in a series that brings important stories of historic places into classrooms across the country.

Where it fits into the curriculum

Topics: This lesson can be used in U.S. history, world history, social studies, and geography courses on World War II.

United States History Standards for Grades 5-12

Liberty Ships and Victory Ships, America's Lifeline in War
relates to the following National Standards for History:

Era 8: The Great Depression and World War II (1929-1945)

Standard 3A- The student understands the international background of World War II.

Standard 3B- The student understands World War II and how the Allies prevailed.

Standard 3C- The student understands the effects of World War II at home.

Curriculum Standards for Social Studies

National Council for the Social Studies

Liberty Ships and Victory Ships, America's Lifeline in War
relates to the following Social Studies Standards:

Theme II: Time, Continuity and Change

Standard B - The student identifies and uses key concepts such as chronology, causality, change, conflict, and complexity to explain, analyze, and show connections among patterns of historical change and continuity.

Standard C - The student identifies and describes selected historical periods and patterns of change within and across cultures, such as the rise of civilizations, the development of transportation systems, the growth and breakdown of colonial systems, and others.

Theme III: People, Places and Environments

Standard A - The student elaborates mental maps of locales, regions, and the world that demonstrate understanding of relative location, direction, size, and shape.

Theme V: Individuals, Groups, and Institutions

Standard A - The student demonstrates an understanding of concepts such as role, status, and social class in describing the interactions of individuals and social groups.

Standard B - The student analyzes group and institutional influences on people, events, and elements of culture.

Standard G - The student applies knowledge of how groups and institutions work to meet individual needs and promote the common good.

Theme VI: Power, Authority and Governance

Standard C - The student analyzes and explains ideas and governmental mechanisms to meet wants and needs of citizens, regulate territory, manage conflict, and establish order and security.

Standard G - The student describes and analyzes the role of technology in communications, transportation, information-processing, weapons development, and other areas as it contributes to or helps resolves issues.

Theme VII: Production, Distribution and Consumption

Standard A - The student gives and explain examples of ways that economic systems structure choices about how goods and services are to be produced and distributed.

Standard D - The student describes a range of examples of the various institutions that make up economic systems such as households, business firms, banks, government agencies, labor unions, and corporations.

Objectives for students

1) To outline the reasons behind the massive merchant-ship building program the United States undertook in the years before its entry in World War II.
2) To examine how changing technology affected the conduct of warfare.
3) To compare and contrast the Liberty ships and the Victory ships.
4) To conduct oral histories with local people involved in supporting the war effort.

Materials for students

The materials listed below either can be used directly on the computer or can be printed out, photocopied, and distributed to students. The maps and images appear twice: in a smaller, low-resolution version with associated questions and alone in a larger version.
1) two maps showing selected shipyards in the United States and the North Atlantic Ocean
2) three readings about Liberty ships and Victory ships
3) four photos of Liberty ships, Victory ships, and convoys
4) one stamp showing a Liberty ship.

Visiting the site

The Liberty Ship SS Jeremiah O'Brien is located at Pier 45 on Fisherman's Wharf in San Francisco, California. The ship is open to the public and cruises are available. The ship is open daily from 10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m., except on New Year's Day, Thanksgiving, and Christmas. There is an admission charge. For more information, contact the National Liberty Ship Memorial, Pier 23, San Francisco, CA 94111, or visit the ship's website.

The Liberty Ship SS John W. Brown is located in Baltimore, Maryland. The ship is open to the public and cruises are available. The ship is open Sundays and Wednesdays from 9:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m., except on Christmas. From I-95 take the Keith Avenue exit. Follow Keith Avenue west to Clinton Street. Turn right on Clinton Street and proceed to 2000 S. Clinton Street, Pier 1. For more information, contact Project Liberty Ship, P.O. Box 25846, Highlandtown Station, Baltimore, MD 21224, or visit the ship's website.

The Victory Ship SS American Victory is located near the Florida Aquarium in Tampa, Florida at Berth 271. The ship is open to the public and cruises are available. The ship is open Monday through Saturday 10:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. and Sundays 12:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m. There is an admission charge. From I-275 take the Downtown East exit to Jefferson Street. Continue south on Jefferson Street to Twiggs Street. Turn left on Twiggs Street to Channelside Drive. Turn right on Channelside Drive to York Street. Turn left on York Street to the Florida Aquarium parking lot. For more information, contact American Victory Ship, 705 Channelside Drive, Tampa, FL 33602, or visit the ship's website.

The Victory Ship SS Lane Victory is located at the Los Angeles Harbor in San Pedro, California. The ship is open to the public and cruises are available. The ship is open daily from 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. There is an admission charge. From the Harbor Freeway (I-110) take the Harbor Boulevard exit. Stay to the right and follow the signs to Harbor Boulevard. Once off the freeway, stay in the center lane and go into the Catalina Terminal. Follow the signs to the SS Lane Victory at Berth 94. For more information, contact the United States Merchant Marine Veterans of World War II, P.O. Box 629, San Pedro, CA 90733.

The Victory Ship SS Red Oak Victory is located in Richmond, California and is part of the Rosie the Riveter/WWII Home Front National Historical Park. The ship is administered by the Richmond Museum of History and is open to the public. The ship is open seven days a week from 10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. except when there is severe weather. Donations are requested. From either I-80 or I-580 take the Cutting Boulevard exit. Continue west on Cutting Blvd. to a four-way stop sign. Take a left on Dornan Drive through the Ferry Point tunnel to Terminal One, 1500 Dornan Drive. Please note the ship is scheduled to be relocated in early 2005. For more information, contact the SS Red Oak Victory, Terminal 1, 1500 Dornan Drive, Richmond, CA 94801, or visit the ship's website.

Rosie the Riveter/World War II Home Front National Historical Park, located in Richmond, California, preserves and interprets the history of the men and women who worked in the factories and shipyards in Richmond during World War II. It is a partnership between the National Park Service, the City of Richmond, the Rosie the Riveter Trust, and the Richmond Museum of History, and is made up of noncontiguous units near the Richmond waterfront. Many of the units are owned by the City of Richmond while others are privately owned. The park was created in 2000 and is still in development therefore, certain sites are not yet open to the public. Several units are open to the public, including the Rosie the Riveter Memorial, which is open from dawn to dusk every day, the John J. Sheridan Observation Point, and the Victory Ship SS Red Oak Victory. For more information about the park, contact the Superintendent, Rosie the Riveter/World War II Home Front National Historical Park, 1401 Marina Way South, Richmond, CA 94804 or visit the park's website or the park's partner, the Rosie the Riveter Trust.

Getting Started

Inquiry Question

(Stamp courtesy Iowa Stamps and Coins)

Why do you think the U.S. Post Office issued this stamp?

Setting the Stage

In 1936, Congress passed the Merchant Marine Act, creating the U.S. Maritime Commission to oversee ". that the United States shall have a merchant marine…to provide shipping service essential for maintaining the flow of such domestic and foreign waterborne commerce at all times, capable of serving as a naval and military auxiliary in time of war or national emergency, owned and operated under the United States flag…, composed of the best-equipped, safest, and most suitable types of vessels…, and supplemented by efficient facilities for shipbuilding and ship repair."¹ The fleet of ships responsible for this mission is called the U.S. Merchant Marine.

At the time the act was passed, the majority of the ships in the merchant fleet were over 20 years old. The original plan was to build 50 ships per year for 10 years. However, World War II began in 1939, when Hitler's Germany invaded Poland. The United States realized that the existing construction program was not adequate to meet the changing world situation. During World War II the Merchant Marine was nationalized, that is, the U.S. government controlled the cargo and the destinations, contracted with private companies to operate the ships, and put guns and Navy personnel (Armed Guard) on board. The government trained civilian men to operate the ships and assist in manning the guns through the U.S. Maritime Service.

With Hitler's attack on Great Britain in 1940, the need for the United States to increase ship production became critical. The British could no longer produce ships in great numbers and also needed food and supplies. The United States knew that if Great Britain fell it would have no allies in Western Europe. Under the Lend-Lease program (which enabled the president to transfer arms and equipment to any nation deemed vital to the defense of the United States), the U.S. agreed to build commercial ships for Great Britain. American ship builders began to construct these ships using an old, but reliable, English design.

In 1939 the German Navy launched submarine warfare in the North Atlantic Ocean to enforce a naval blockade against Great Britain. Their submarines, called Unterseebooten or U-Boats, sank great numbers of merchant ships approaching the British Isles. Under these pressures, the United States greatly increased the production of its own merchant fleet. Cargo ships were needed to ferry supplies to allies if the United States entered the war. The United States decided to modify the English design being used for the Lend-Lease ships. The new emergency cargo ships came to be known as the Liberty ships. Yet, between 1939 and 1940, only 82 vessels were constructed. In 1941, Congress passed the Ship Warrants Act, giving the Maritime Commission power to allot ship construction priorities. Since existing shipyards were working full capacity on naval contracts, the Maritime Commission established 18 new shipyards to work on these identical merchant ships. They were built on a common design in assembly-line fashion along the West, East, and Gulf coasts of the United States. Parts were manufactured in every state in the country.

Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 and U.S. entry into World War II, ships were being sunk by German U-Boats almost as fast as they were being built. The Maritime Commission called for 2,000 ships to be constructed by the end of 1943. (The Japanese also inflicted a toll on supply ships in the Solomon Islands and New Guinea, but following their naval and air losses at Coral Sea and Midway, in mid-1942, they were less of a problem to merchant shipping than the Germans.) The ship building effort was a success. Finally, the United States had enough ships to keep pace with the losses caused by the U-Boats.

However, the Liberty ships were slow and small. Their design had a weakness in the hull that caused ships to sometimes break in two. In 1943, the United States started a new emergency cargo ship program to replace the Liberty ships. The newer ships were bigger and faster with better engines. These ships were designated Victory ships. While the Liberty ships were designed to be the workhorse of the war, Victory ships could continue to be used after the war as part of the regular merchant fleet.

The Liberty and Victory ships were adapted to suit the operational needs of each branch of the military service. Many carried cargo, while others were fitted out as troop carriers. Some were used as tankers carrying fuel for ships, vehicles and aircraft. Still others were fitted out as hospital ships or used to transport enemy prisoners of war. Ultimately, both the Liberty ships and Victory ships served with distinction in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans during World War II.

¹ Merchant Marine Act, 1936, U.S. Code website [], (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office).

Locating the Site

Map 1: Selected Shipyards in the United States.

All of the shipyards built Liberty ships. The shipyards marked with a (V) also built Victory ships.

Questions for Map 1

1. Compare Map 1 with an atlas or a map of the United States map. Make a list of the states where the shipyards were located. On what bodies of water were the shipyards located?

2. What effect do you think climate might have on producing ships? Would having a large population nearby be important? If so, why? Why do you think most of the shipyards that built Victory ships were located on the West Coast, and especially in California? Which shipyard on the East Coast built Victory Ships?

3. Why do you think it would be important to have shipyards along the East, West, and Gulf coasts, and not just in one area?

Locating the Site

Map 2: North Atlantic Ocean.

Questions for Map 2

1. Using an atlas, world map or globe, locate the Atlantic Ocean, North America, South America, Europe, Africa, Greenland, Iceland, Germany and Great Britain. Mark them on Map 2.

2. Using an atlas or a United States map, locate New York City. Mark it on Map 2.

3. On Map 2, draw a line between New York City and Great Britain. This would be the most direct route between the two and a logical shipping lane. However, German submarines patrolled these shipping lanes. Try to determine other routes to get the supplies from New York City to Great Britain and chart them on Map 2. What might be the difficulties of traveling to the north to reach Great Britain? What might be the difficulties of traveling to the south?

Determining the Facts

When war broke out Europe in September 1939, the merchant fleet was caught unprepared to handle a massive sealift of war material. With continental Europe under German control, and Great Britain under devastating air attack, President Franklin Roosevelt decided to increase the pace of production to provide ships to America's British allies. The result was the emergency fleet program, which introduced the assembly-line production of standardized ships--the Liberty ships--in 1941. The Liberty ship represented the design solution that would fill the need for an emergency type of simple, standardized cargo steamer. Based on a British design, it could be mass-produced cheaply and quickly using assembly-line methods and could easily be converted to individual military service needs. The United States designated this new type of ship the EC2 (E for emergency, C for cargo and 2 for a medium-sized ship between 400 and 450 feet at the waterline.) Production speed grew more important as German submarines sank ships trying to break Hitler's naval blockade of Great Britain. The Allies needed ships by the hundreds to replace these losses and to increase the flow of supplies to England and, later, the Soviet Union.

The first of these new ships was launched on September 27, 1941. It was named the SS Patrick Henry after the American Revolutionary War patriot who had famously declared, "Give me liberty, or give me death." Consequently, all the EC2 type of emergency cargo ships came to be known as Liberty ships. Naming nearly 3,000 ships turned out to be harder than people thought. Unlike the later Victory ships, there was no plan for how the Liberty ships would be named. In the end, the Liberties were named for people from all walks of life. Ships were named after patriots and heroes of the Revolutionary War. They were named after famous politicians (Abraham Lincoln to Simon Bolivar), scientists (George Washington Carver to Alexander Graham Bell), artists (Gilbert Stuart to Gutzon Borglum who sculpted Mt. Rushmore) and explorers (Daniel Boone to Robert E. Peary). One ship was named the SS Stage Door Canteen after the famous U.S.O. club for military service members while another was named the SS U.S.O. in honor of the United Service Organization itself.

The Liberty ships were slightly over 441 feet long and 57 feet wide. They used a 2,500 horsepower steam engine to push them through the water at 11 knots (approximately 12.5 miles per hour). The ships had a range of 17,000 miles. Liberty ships had five cargo holds, three forward of the engine room and two aft (in the rear portion of the ship). Each could carry 10,800 deadweight tons (the weight of cargo a ship can carry) or 4,380 net tons (the amount of space available for cargo and passengers). The crew quarters were located amidships (the middle portion of the ship).

Many technological advances were made during the Liberty shipbuilding program. A steel cold-rolling process was developed to save steel in the making of lightweight cargo booms. Welding techniques also advanced sufficiently to produce the first all-welded ships. Prefabrication was perfected, with complete deckhouses, double-bottom sections, stern-frame assemblies and bow units speeding production of the ships. By 1944, the average time to build a ship was 42 days. In all, 2,751 Liberties were built between 1941 and 1945, making them the largest class of ships built worldwide.

Each Liberty ship carried a crew of between 38 and 62 civilian merchant sailors, and 21 to 40 naval personnel to operate defensive guns and communications equipment. The Merchant Marine served in World War II as a Military Auxiliary. Of the nearly quarter million volunteer merchant mariners who served during World War II, over 9,000 died. Merchant sailors suffered a greater percentage of fatalities (3.9%) than any branch of the armed forces.

The Liberty ship was considered a "five-year vessel" (an expendable, if necessary, material of war) because it was not able to compete with non-emergency vessels in speed, equipment and general serviceability. However, Liberties ended up doing well, plodding the seas for nearly 20 years after the end of World War II. Many Liberties were placed in the reserve fleet and several supported the Korean War. Other Liberties were sold off to shipping companies, where they formed the backbone of postwar merchant fleets whose commerce generated income to build the new ships of the 1950s and 1960s. However, age took its toll and by the mid-1960s the Liberties became too expensive to operate and were sold for scrap, their metal recycled. The first Liberty built, the Patrick Henry, was sent to the ship breakers (scrap yard) in October 1958.

Of the nearly 3,000 Liberty ships built, 200 were lost during World War II to enemy action, weather and accidents. Only two are still operational today, the SS Jeremiah O'Brien and the SS John W. Brown.

Questions for Reading 1
1. What is the U.S. Merchant Marine? What was the 1936 Merchant Marine Act? If needed, refer to Setting the Stage.
2. Why did the United States want to build merchant ships?
3. How many total ships did the Merchant Marine Act call for?
4. Why were the ships known as Liberty ships? How were the individual ships named?
5. Why were so many Liberty ships built?
6. What purpose did the ships serve during the war? What purpose did they serve after the war?

Reading 1 was compiled from John Gorley Bunker, Liberty Ships: The Ugly Ducklings of World War II (Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1972) Harry Butowsky, "SS Jeremiah O'Brien" (San Francisco County, California) National Register of Historic Places Inventory - Nomination Form (Washington, D.C.: Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1985) James P. Delgado, "Lane Victory" (Los Angeles County, California) National Historic Landmark Nomination Form (Washington D.C.: Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1990) Curtis P. Junker, revised by Peter E. Kurtze, "SS John W. Brown" (Baltimore City, Maryland) National Register of Historic Places Registration Form (Washington, D.C.: Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1996) Samuel Eliot Morison, History of the United States Naval Operations in World War II. Vol. 1, The Battle of the Atlantic, September 1939-May 1943 (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1950) and L.W. Sawyer and W.H. Mitchell, The Liberty Ships: The History of the 'Emergency' Type Cargo Ships Constructed in the United States During World War II (Cambridge, Maryland: Cornell Maritime Press, 1970).

Determining the Facts

In 1943, the U.S. Maritime Commission embarked on a program to design new types of emergency fleet ships, most importantly fast cargo vessels, to replace the slower Liberty ships. The standardized design adopted by the Commission called for a ship 445 feet long by 63 feet wide and made of steel. On April 28, 1943, the new ships were given the name "Victory" and designated the VC2 type (V for Victory type, C for cargo, and 2 for a medium sized ship between 400 and 450 feet long at the waterline).

The Victory ships ultimately were slightly over 455 feet long and 62 feet wide. Like the Liberty ships, each had five cargo holds, three forward and two aft. The Victories could carry 10,850 deadweight tons (the weight of cargo a ship can carry) or 4,555 net tons (the amount of space available for cargo and passengers), a larger load than the Liberties could manage. Victory ships typically carried a crew of 62 civilian merchant sailors and 28 naval personnel to operate defensive guns and communications equipment. The crew quarters were located amidships. The Victory ships were different from the Liberty ships primarily in propulsion, the steam engine of the Liberty giving way to the more modern, faster steam turbine. The Victory ships had engines producing between 5,500 to 8,500 horsepower. Their cruising speed was 15-17 knots (approximately 18.5 miles per hour).

The ship profile and the construction techniques of the Victories were also different from the Liberties. One important feature of the Victory ship was in the internal design of the hull, the ship's framework. The Liberty ships had the frames inside the hull set 30 inches apart. This made the hull very rigid. This rigidity caused the hull to fracture in some of the ships. The Victory ships had their hull frames set 36 inches apart. Because the hull could flex, there was less danger of fracture.

The first Victory ship completed was the SS United Victory (built at Oregon Shipbuilding, Portland, OR), launched on January 12, 1944 and delivered February 28. The next 33 ships were named after member countries of the United Nations (e.g., SS Brazil Victory and SS U.S.S.R. Victory [both built by California Shipbuilding Corporation, Los Angeles, CA], and SS Haiti Victory [built by Permanente Metals Corporation, yard 1, Richmond, CA]). The ships that followed were named for cities and towns in the United States (e.g., SS Ames Victory [built by Oregon Shipbuilding], SS Las Vegas Victory [built by Permanente Metals Corporation, yard 1] and SS Zanesville Victory [built by Bethlehem-Fairfield Shipyards, Inc., Baltimore, MD]) and for American colleges and universities (e.g., SS Adelphi Victory and SS Yale Victory [both built by Permanente Metals Corporation, yard 2]). All of the ships' names ended with the suffix "Victory" with the exception of the 117 Victory Attack Transports that were named after state counties. The Maritime Commission built 414 Victory cargo ships and 117 Victory attack transports for a total of 531 vessels during the course of the war.

Victory ships formed a critical maritime link to the theaters of war. These fast, large capacity carriers served honorably in both the Atlantic and Pacific theaters of war. Ninety-seven of the Victories were fitted out as troop carriers the others carried food, fuel, ammunition, material and supplies.

At the war's end a number of Victory ships were offered for sale by the Maritime Commission. One hundred and seventy were sold, 20 were loaned to the U.S. Army and the rest were stored as part of the reserve fleet. When the Navy no longer needs to use a ship but wishes to reserve it for a future emergency, it tows the ship to storage harbors, empties it of all fuel and cargo, and seals its windows and doors. The ship is protected from salt-water corrosion by a cathodic protection system and the interior spaces are dehumidified. This technique is called "mothballing," because it echoes how people preserve a wool sweater that is put away for the summer.

Some vessels were reactivated to serve during times of national crisis, including the Korean War, the Suez Canal closure of 1956 and the Vietnam War. Other vessels were retained as logistic support ships as part of the Military Sealift Command, which in 1970 became the single managing agency for the Department of Defense's ocean transportation needs. The command assumed responsibility for providing sealift and ocean transportation for all military services as well as for other government agencies. In 1959, eight Victory ships were reclassified and refitted as instrumentation, telemetry, and recovery ships for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in support of America's space program. On August 11, 1960, the former SS Haiti Victory (renamed the USNS Haiti Victory (T-AK-238)) recovered the nose cone of the satellite Discoverer XIII, the first man-made object recovered from space.

Over the years, many ships in the reserve fleet have been sold for scrap, their metal to be recycled. Of the thousands of Liberty ships and Victory ships produced only a small number remain.

Questions for Reading 2
1. When and why did the Maritime Commission start a new program to replace the Liberty ships?
2. How were the Victory ships different from Liberty ships?
3. How were the Victory ships named?
4. What is "mothballing"?
5. Describe the ways the Victory ships were used after World War II.
6. Why are there so few Liberty and Victory ships today?

Reading 2 was compiled from James P. Delgado,
"Lane Victory" (Los Angeles County, California) National Historic Landmark Nomination Form (Washington, D.C.: Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1990) Shelby Sampson, "SS Red Oak Victory" (Contra Costa County, California) National Register of Historic Places Registration Form (Washington, D.C.: Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 2000) L.A. Sawyer and W.H. Mitchell, Victory Ships and Tankers (Newton Abbot, England: David and Charles Publishers, 1974) and Timothy J. Teahan and Barbara E. Mattick, "SS American Victory" (Hillsborough County, Florida) National Register of Historic Places Registration Form (Washington, D.C.: Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 2001).

Determining the Facts

Reading 3: Selected Ships' Histories

As the years went by, age took its toll on the Liberty and Victory ships. Many ships became too expensive to operate insurance companies did not want to cover these old merchant ships. In most cases, they were sold for scrap. The reserve fleet was also being sold for scrap. What was once a proud fleet was now down to a precious few vessels. Some historic preservation and veterans organizations became interested in these ships and a handful were saved from the ship breakers. The following are the histories of five of these ships that have been preserved as floating museums to honor their service to the United States and to honor the mariners who sailed upon them.

The Liberty Ship SS Jeremiah O'Brien
The SS Jeremiah O'Brien is a World War II cargo ship and the product of a standardized design. The ship was named for Jeremiah O'Brien, a Revolutionary War hero who lived in Machias, Maine. In 1775, O'Brien led other residents of Machias in the capture of two British merchant ships. Using these captured ships, O'Brien captured the British armed schooner HMS Margaretta. This was the first naval action of the American Revolution.

The keel (the bottom beam or plate juncture that runs the length of a ship) for the SS Jeremiah O'Brien was laid at the New England Shipbuilding Corporation, in South Portland, Maine on May 6, 1943. She was launched on June 19, 1943. The ship was owned by the federal government and operated by Grace Line, Inc. For the next year, the ship carried ammunition and grain, as well as other dry cargo. In June 1944, the Jeremiah O'Brien supported the D-Day invasions by ferrying supplies between Great Britain and Normandy, France 11 times.

After the war, plans were made to transfer the ship to the U.S. Army for conversion to a hospital ship. The conversion never occurred and the ship was "mothballed" at the reserve fleet near San Francisco. In 1966, the U.S. Maritime Administration wanted to preserve a Liberty ship and chose the Jeremiah O'Brien. The ship was designated a National Historic Landmark (NHL) in 1986. NHLs are nationally significant historic places designated by the Secretary of the Interior because they illustrate the heritage of the United States. Over the years, the ship was restored and is now a museum in San Francisco, CA. She is only one of two Liberty ships still operational. The ship participated in the 50th anniversary of the D-day landings in 1994.

The Liberty Ship SS John W. Brown
The SS John W. Brown is a World War II cargo ship built by the U.S. Maritime Commission. In 1942, she was built in 41 days at the Bethlehem-Fairfield Shipyard in Baltimore, Maryland. She was launched on Labor Day, September 7, 1942. The ship was named after an American labor leader who organized workers in shipyards.

After being launched, the ship sailed to New York and departed on its maiden voyage on September 29, 1942 carrying supplies to the Middle East. In 1943, the ship was converted to carry troops as well as cargo. Later, the John W. Brown supported combat operations in the Mediterranean Sea. The ship was involved in the Allied landings at Sicily and Anzio in Italy, and southern France. After the war ended in Europe, the John W. Brown carried U.S. military personnel home.

In 1947, the Maritime Commission loaned the ship to New York City to use as a training vessel for high school students interested in maritime jobs. However, it became too expensive to run the school, and the ship was returned to the Maritime Commission and put into storage with the reserve fleet on the James River in Virginia. Historic preservation groups, including Project Liberty Ship and the Baltimore Museum of History (MD), wanted to protect the ship and it was transferred to them to turn into a museum in Baltimore, MD. She is one of only two Liberty ships still operational.

The Victory Ship SS American Victory
The SS American Victory was launched on June 20, 1945 at the California Shipbuilding Corporation yards in Los Angeles, California. The ship was named after American University in Washington, D.C. in honor of the school's contribution to war training and weapons research in both World War I and World War II. The ship's first voyage was in July 1945 carrying military supplies to Manila, Philippines.

After the war, the ship was used by the American Export Lines carrying cargo in support of the Marshall Plan, a U.S. economic diplomacy plan to help rebuild Western Europe after the war. On one of its many voyages, the American Victory was caught by ice in Odessa, Russia. Rather than wait for an ice breaker to clear the shipping lanes, the captain of the American Victory used her to break the ice!

In 1947, the American Victory was put into the reserve fleet. In 1952, the ship was brought out of "mothballs" to carry military supplies in support of the Korean conflict. After the Korean War, she was again sent to the reserve fleet. In 1963, the Navy planned to convert 15 Victory ships, among them the American Victory, as forward depot ships. These ships would be loaded with supplies and ammunition and placed around the world to support American troops if needed. However, the Navy canceled the plan in 1966 and that same year, the American Victory was again brought out of "mothballs" to support the Vietnam War. She carried military vehicles, telephone poles, explosives, and bombs.

In 1969, she was again put in the reserve fleet. In 1999, the American Victory was acquired by a preservation group and turned into a museum in Tampa, FL.

The Victory Ship SS Lane Victory
The SS Lane Victory was built by the California Shipbuilding Corporation in Los Angeles. She was launched on May 31, 1945. The ship was named for Lane College, which was established as a high school for black youths in 1882 by Isaac Lane, a bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church at Jackson, Tennessee. The school grew into a prominent liberal arts college. On her first voyage, June 27, 1945, the ship carried supplies in the Pacific. She was operated by American President Lines.

In 1950, the Lane Victory was used to evacuate Korean civilians and U.N. personnel at Wonsan, South Korea during the Korean War. The ship also saw duty during the Vietnam War. In 1970, the ship was placed in the reserve fleet. Because of her excellent condition, the Maritime Administration decided to set aside the Lane Victory for preservation. In 1988, the Lane Victory was acquired by the U.S. Merchant Marine Veterans of World War II and turned into a museum in San Pedro, CA. In 1990, the ship was designated a National Historic Landmark.

The Victory Ship SS Red Oak Victory
The SS Red Oak Victory was built by the Permanente Metals Corporation, Shipbuilding Division Yard 1 in Richmond, California, across the bay from San Francisco. Her keel was laid August 15, 1944 and she was launched November 9, 1944. She is one of the last ships built by the Richmond Shipyard during World War II. The ship was named after the community of Red Oak, Iowa, which suffered the highest per capita casualty rate of any American community during World War II. On December 5, 1944, she was commissioned as the USS Red Oak Victory (AK-235) for the the U.S. Navy to be used as an ammunition carrier.
In January 1945, after sea trials, she loaded over 10,000 tons of ammunition from the Port Chicago Ammunition Depot, Concord, California and departed for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. In February 1945, she steamed to a remote area of the South Pacific called Ulithi Atoll where the worlds largest formation of Allied forces had amassed for the invasion of Japan. From March to May 1945, the USS Red Oak Victory (AK-235) replenished numerous vessels of the Pacific fleet. From June to October 1945, she supported the liberation of the Philippine Islands. In November 1945, she headed home to Seattle, Washington were she was decommissioned on May 21, 1946 and returned back to the U.S. Maritime Commission.

In May 1947, she was leased to the Luckenbach Gulf Steamship Company, Seattle, Washington. She made several voyages, most notably supporting the UN forces engaged in the Korean War with military cargo. From 1957 to 1965 she was in storage by the U.S. Maritime Commission. In December 1965, she was leased to the American Mail Lines and until December 1968, supported U.S. forces engaged in the Vietnam War. She was placed back into storage until September 1998, where she was obtained by the Richmond Museum Association to be restored back to her original operational launch condition. Today, the Red Oak Victory is an integral part of the Rosie the Riveter/World War II Home Front National Historical Park.

Questions for Reading 3
1. What was some of the cargo these ships carried?
2. Looking at a world map or atlas, locate some of the places to which each of these ships carried cargo. Does this give you a better appreciation for the mission of the seamen who served in the Merchant Marine? Why or why not?
3. Unlike the Liberty ships, which were built to be expendable, the Victory ships were designed to last for at least 20 years after being built. What examples can you find in the reading to support this?
4. Of the thousands of Liberty and Victory ships built, only a few remain. Why do you think it is important to preserve these ships?

Reading 3 was compiled from John Gorley Bunker, Liberty Ships: The Ugly Ducklings of World War II (Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1972) Harry Butowsky, "SS Jeremiah O'Brien" (San Francisco County, California) National Register of Historic Places Inventory - Nomination Form (Washington, DC: Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1985) James P. Delgado, "Lane Victory" (Los Angeles County, California) National Historic Landmark Nomination Form (Washington DC: Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1990) Curtis P. Junker, revised by Peter E. Kurtze, "SS John W. Brown" (Baltimore City, Maryland) National Register of Historic Places Registration Form (Washington, DC: Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1996) Shelby Sampson, "SS Red Oak Victory" (Contra Costa County, California) National Register of Historic Places Registration Form (Washington, DC: Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 2000) L.A. Sawyer and W.H. Mitchell, Victory Ships and Tankers (Newton Abbot, England: David and Charles Publishers, 1974) and Timothy J. Teahan and Barbara E. Mattick, "SS American Victory" (Hillsborough County, Florida) National Register of Historic Places Registration Form (Washington, DC: Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 2001).

Visual Evidence

Photo 1: "Your Merchant Marine Has Grown."

(Courtesy U.S. Maritime Administration)

Press release from the War Shipping Administration, May 20, 1945.

War Shipping Administration
Washington, D.C.

News Foto Release No. 76, (#2 of 5).
For Release May 20, 1945.

Your Merchant Marine Has Grown

American merchant shipyards have built four ships for every prewar ship we had. Our fleet of Liberty, Victory, C-type and other vessels reached an all-time high of more than 3,500 dry cargo vessels, and more than 900 high-speed tankers.
This huge fleet, in 1944, moved out of the United States more than 72 percent of 78,500,000 tons of cargo shipped. Three percent were carried by the U.S. armed forces and 24 percent by the combined tonnage of other United Nations.
Transfer of troops and supplies from Europe to the far Pacific, over sea lanes ranging from 12,000 to 18,000 miles, will demand maximum efficiency in the use of our huge fleet under control of the War Shipping Administration and the United Nation's pool.
--WSA photo 4235
(Courtesy U.S. Maritime Administration)

Questions for Photo 1
1. A press release is a statement or an article that the government and other organizations give to newspapers to announce news and information. Why would the War Shipping Administration think it was important for newspapers to print this article and photograph?
2. Look at the chart in the above photograph. What statistical information does this chart present? By how much has the amount of cargo carried grown between 1942 and 1945?
3. How does this photograph of the shipyard help you in answering Question 2? Explain.
4. Photo 1 shows both Victory ships and Liberty ships under construction. Can you find the Liberty ship in Photo 1? What clues did you use to determine the difference between the Victory ships and Liberty ships?

Visual Evidence

Photo 2: "Salute Your Merchant Marine on Maritime Day--May

(Courtesy U.S. Maritime Administration)
Photo release from the U.S. Maritime Commission, May 13, 1945.

U.S. Maritime Commission
Washington, D.C.
News Foto Release No. 74, (#2 of 12)
Watch Your Release Date - Not before May 13, 1945.

Salute Your Merchant Marine on Maritime Day--May 22

Not done with mirrors: Victory ships almost as far as the eye can reach line up at a West Coast shipyard for final outfitting before joining our vast merchant fleet. On Maritime Day, May 22, we shall have nearly 300 of these crack cargo type in service, and 300 more will be delivered before the year is out.
--Maritime Commission photo 4236
(Courtesy U.S. Maritime Administration)

Questions for Photo 2
1. This photo and caption was sent to local newspapers by the Maritime Commission to announce the upcoming Maritime Day. What do you think Maritime Day was about? Would Maritime Day be something worth celebrating? Explain.
2. What artistic elements did the photographer include in this Photo 2?
3. On the docks in front of the ships are lengths of chain. How might the chain be used on these ships?

Visual Evidence

Photo 3: North Atlantic Convoy, 1941.

Photo 3 shows a convoy of ships in the North Atlantic. Some of the ships in the convoy are Liberty ships. In 1941, The United States established the forward military base in Argentia, Newfoundland to support convoy escorts and patrol aircraft. The photograph was taken from an airplane assigned to the USS Albemarle (AV-5), a seaplane tender (a ship built to house and support seaplanes), in October 1941. At the time the photo was made, the Albemarle was based at Argentia.

In the early years of World War II, German submarines, also known as U-Boats, threatened ships traveling across the Atlantic Ocean. Many cargo ships were sunk by the U-Boats. The United States and the Allies developed many ways to protect ships carrying supplies to Great Britain and the Soviet Union. Some of the many innovations that came out of World War II to locate submarines include radar, sonar, and high frequency direction finding.

Because ships traveling alone were almost certain targets for submarines, the U.S. and her Allies grouped the ships together in huge convoys. The Navy and Coast Guard escorted the convoys with destroyers. Unlike modern submarines, which can stay submerged for months at a time, the submarines in World War II spent most of their time on the surface and submerged only when attacking ships or evading detection. In areas that were close to land, airplanes were used to scout for submarines. Many of these scouting planes also carried bombs so they could attack detected enemy submarines.

Questions for Photo 3
1. Using an atlas, locate Newfoundland, Canada. Look at Map 2. Where is Newfoundland located, in relationship to the line between New York and Great Britain? Why did it make sense to base convoy escorts and patrol aircraft, such as the seaplanes from the USS Albemarle, in Newfoundland?
2. Why would grouping ships together in convoys help protect ships from submarines?
3. Photo 3 shows part of the wing of the patrol aircraft. In what ways did the patrol aircraft help protect ships carrying supplies?

Visual Evidence

Illustration 1: U.S. Merchant Marine Commemorative Stamp.

(Stamp courtesy Iowa Stamps and Coins)

This stamp was issued by the U.S. Post Office Department on February 26, 1946 to honor the achievement of the United States Merchant Marine in World War II. The stamp depicts a Liberty ship unloading cargo.

Questions for Illustration 1
1. Look up the word "commemorate" in the dictionary. What does it mean?
2. What is a "merchant marine"? Why do you think it was important to honor the Merchant Marine with a postage stamp?
3. The words "Peace and War" are placed at the top of the stamp. Why do you think these words were put on the stamp? Why is the word "peace" placed first?

Visual Evidence

Photo 4: Liberty Ship, 1941.

Photo 4 shows the first Liberty ship, SS Patrick Henry, shortly after its launch in September 1941.

Questions for Photo 4
1. The ship was launched September 27, 1941. Considering the year it was built, what might be one reason why this Liberty ship doesn't have any weapons? If needed, refer to Setting the Stage.
2. Note the faint white markings on the bow of the ship. Those are numbers. What do you think the numbers are for? Based on your answer, can you determine if this ship is loaded or unloaded? How did you come to your conclusion?
3. The ship has three masts. What could they be used for? If needed, compare Photo 4 with Illustration 1.

Putting It All Together

The Liberty ships and Victory ships were built in order to move troops and supplies during World War II. They were built in great numbers to counter the threat from submarines and to ensure that the flow of men and material was unhindered. The following activities will help students discover more about Liberty and Victory ships and the role their community and its residents played during World War II.

Activity 1: Pay Tribute to Local History
Have students design a postage stamp depicting an important event that happened in your community. Encourage students to be creative with designs and color. Students should share their "stamps" in class and hold a class discussion on why they chose to commemorate that particular event.

Activity 2: Serving the War Effort
By using simple designs, perfecting mass-production techniques and building the necessary shipyards, the U.S. was able to produce the massive fleet of merchant ships needed to win World War II. However, there were not enough workers for all the new shipyards. Many men who could have built ships were serving in the armed forces. As a result of this labor shortage, many factories and shipyards hired women, minorities, and men unable to go to war to work on the assembly lines and in the shipyards to manufacture the products needed to prosecute the war. The women were given the nickname "Rosie the Riveter" after a worker in a popular song.

Ask students to locate persons in the community or their families who worked in the farms, factories and shipyards during World War II. Students may find that local organizations that serve veterans and senior citizens are a good resource for locating these individuals in their communities. Organize a class project to participate in the Veterans History Project of the Library of Congress by interviewing these persons and donating the interviews to the Library of Congress. See the Library of Congress Veterans History Project website at [], or write to The Veterans History Project, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, 101 Independence Ave., SE, Washington, D.C. 20540 for more information. The project website offers sample interview questions for civilians who worked in support of the United States during the war. A free "Field Kit" is also available with tips for interviewing. You can download the kit for free on the project's website [].

Activity 3: Carrying the Supplies
The Liberty ships and Victory ships carried many different types of important supplies in support of the war including food, fuel, vehicles, ammunition, and spare parts. Ask students to locate farms or factories in your community that supplied the war effort. Have them research how they supported the war. The local historical society or library's local history section is a good place for students to start their research. Students may need to look at old phone books, city directories, or newspapers to determine which businesses were active in their community during the war and whether they were involved in war production. Students should share the information they have discovered in the form of papers, project boards, computer slideshows, skits, or oral presentations.

Liberty Ships and Victory Ships, America's Lifeline in War--

Liberty Ships and Victory Ships, America's Lifeline in War will help students in understanding how the United States mobilized a massive construction effort to build a large merchant fleet to serve in war and peace. Of the thousands of ships built during World War II, only a small number remain. Those interested in learning more will find that the Internet offers a variety of materials about the people, vessels, and organizations associated with this great accomplishment.

Rosie the Riveter/World War II Home Front National Historical Park
Rosie the Riveter/World War II Home Front National Historical Park is operated as a partnership between the National Park Service, the City of Richmond, the Rosie the Riveter Trust and the Richmond Museum of History. The park opened in 2000 and is still in development. The park preserves and interprets the history of the men and women who worked at the factories and shipyards in and around Richmond, California in support of World War II. Among the many units of the park is the site of the Richmond Shipyard (which built many of the Liberty and Victory ships), the automotive plant (which produced military vehicles), the Rosie the Riveter Memorial, the Liberty Ship Memorial and the SS Red Oak Victory (a World War II era Victory ship). The SS Red Oak Victory is currently undergoing restoration, please check the website for updates.

United States Maritime Administration
This agency under the Department of Transportation oversees the merchant marine of the United States. Visit their website, for more information on the merchant marine, including an Education page.

United States Merchant Marine Academy
Visit the website of the school in Kings Point, New York, that trains future officers of the merchant marine. The site also contains links to the Maritime Museum, which includes artifacts and historic pictures.

Naval Historical Foundation
A non-profit organization dedicated to preserving and promoting the Navy's proud heritage. The Foundation supports the activities of the Naval Historical Center. Their website has information on primary sources including oral histories, memoirs and personal paper collections.

U.S. Maritime Service Veterans
Veterans of the merchant marine and U.S. Naval Armed Guard operate this extensive website. This is a comprehensive site about the history and traditions of the merchant marine. There are extensive histories of the merchant marine in World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War.

American Rosie the Riveter Association
This is a national organization made up of the women who worked in the factories and shipyards during World War II. The website includes a newsletter and links to related sites.

Historic Naval Ship Visitors Guide
This website, maintained by the Historic Naval Ships Association, is a worldwide listing of historic ships that are open to the public, including ships' histories and contact information.

NOVA: Hitler's Lost Sub
The PBS series NOVA aired an episode on the discovery of a sunken German submarine off the coast of New Jersey. The website includes a history of this U-Boat, a virtual tour and a transcript of the show that includes a detailed account of the Battle of the Atlantic during the early years of World War II, when the submarine threat to shipping was at its height. The website also has a Teacher Resources page.

Albemarle County, Virginia

Albemarle County is a county located in the Piedmont region of the Commonwealth of Virginia. Its county seat is Charlottesville, which is an independent city enclave entirely surrounded by the county.Albemarle County is part of the Charlottesville Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Albemarle County was created in 1744 from the western portion of Goochland County, though portions of Albemarle were later carved out to create other counties. Albemarle County was named in honor of Willem Anne van Keppel, 2nd Earl of Albemarle. However, its most famous inhabitant was Thomas Jefferson, who built his estate home, Monticello, in the county.

As of the 2010 census, the population was 98,970

Etymology - Origin of Albemarle County Name

Albemarle County was named for William Anne Keppel, second earl of Albemarle and governor of the Virginia colony from 1737 to 1754.


Albemarle County History

Albemarle County, Virginia formed from Goochland, Louisa, and certain islands in the Fluvanna River. Boundary changes seem to have continued from 1836-1838, 1855-1856, 1861, and from 1876-1877. Virginia Counties: Those Resulting from Virginia Legislation, by Morgan Poitiaux Robinson, originally published as Bulletin of the Virginia State Library, Volume 9, January, April, July 1916, reprinted 1992 by Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore, MD.]

It was formed from Goochland County in 1744, and part of Louisa County and certain islands in the Fluvanna River, now called the James, were added in 1762 and 1838. As originally created, the western section of Louisa County included the northern third of modern-day Albemarle County. In 1762, this region was cut from Louisa County and added to Albemarle County. Prior to 1762, the Louisa County line extended from about where the Fluvanna-Louisa line intersects the eastern boundary of Albemarle in the northwesterly direction, across the point where Ivy Creek enters the Rivanna River, to the crest of the Blue Ridge just south of Brown's Cove. (Before 1742 this area had been the westernmost part of Hanover County.) As a result of this legislative action of 3 Jun 1777 Fluvanna County was formed from Albemarle County and Fluvanna parish was formed from the Albemarle parish of St. Anne. Albemarle has an area 740 square miles, and the county seat is Charlottesville. Albemarle County is distinct from Albemarle Parish, Surry County.

Geography: Land and Water

As reported by the Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 726 square miles (1,880 km 2 ), of which 721 square miles (1,870 km 2 ) is land and 5 square miles (13 km 2 ) (0.7%) is water.

The Rivanna River rises in Albemarle County and was historically important for transportation.

Neighboring Counties

Bordering counties are as follows:

  • Greene County, Virginia (north)
  • Orange County, Virginia (northeast)
  • Louisa County, Virginia (east)
  • Fluvanna County, Virginia (southeast)
  • Buckingham County, Virginia (south)
  • Nelson County, Virginia (southwest)
  • Augusta County, Virginia (west)
  • Rockingham County, Virginia (northwest)

In addition, the city of Charlottesville is enclaved within Albemarle County. Under Virginia law in effect since 1871, all municipalities in the state incorporated as cities are legally and politically independent of any county


The Albemarle County Public School System operates public education in the County, including Murray High School, a charter school, that is located in the City of Charlottesville. Many private schools in Albemarle serve the County and students from surrounding areas.

The mission is sacred, you carry it out until the end and, if necessary in the field, at the risk of your life.

In combat, you act without passion and without hate, you respect defeated enemies, and you never abandon your dead, your wounded, or your arms.

Learn more about the French Foreign Legion in the video at the top.

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History is not the past it is the story we tell about the past. Every person in Albemarle County and the City of Charlottesville has a unique and powerful story to tell. Through collecting, preserving, and interpreting the history of our community, we are committed to informing, inspiring, and bringing together all people, creating opportunities for new relationships and new understandings.

Our work is grounded in a belief in the worth and dignity of every human being. We respect people, communities, and cultures. We value discovery, creativity, integrity, and diversity. We believe in the potential for history to enrich our lives and to create stronger relationships and more vibrant communities. We approach our work with integrity and transparency.

Albermale AV-5 - History

Curtiss class heavy seaplane tenders
Displacement: 12,053 tons trial
Dimensions: 527.5 x 69 x 21.5 feet/160.8 x 21 x 6.5 meters
Propulsion: Steam turbines, 4 boilers, 2 shafts, 12,000 hp, 18 knots
Crew: 1195
Armor: none
Armament: 4 single 5/38 DP, 4 quad 40 mm AA
Aircraft: Large seaplane working deck

Concept/Program: The first purpose-built USN seaplane tenders. These ships were meant to provide maintenance, repair, supply and command facilities to squadrons of long-range patrol seaplanes. They were meant to operate as base ships in forward areas, so they were heavily armed and had all the facilities needed to keep squadrons of seaplanes operating in forward areas for many months.

Design: Large, high-freeboard hull with a relatively small superstructure. Accommodations and non-seaplane facilities were all located in the forward half of the ship. Large, flat seaplane working deck at the stern. Extensive maintenance shops in large superstructure block at the forward end of the working deck, joining the main superstructure. Two large cranes, one at the extreme stern and one at the rear of the superstructure. Heavy gun armament, including 2 5" forward and 2 atop the aft superstructure. These ships were considerably faster than most auxiliaries of the time.

Variations: The two forward 5" guns in Albemarle were both enclosed mounts, but Curtiss had one open and one enclosed mount forward.

Modifications: Two dual 40 mm and 12 20 mm AA added during WWII. Postwar the light guns were removed, but there were no major alterations until 1957, when Albemarle was converted.

Modernization: Albemarle was converted to support P6M Seamaster flying boats during the 1950's. The aft section of the seaplane working deck was converted into a small drydock with a ramp at its front. This arrangement was meant to allow docking of the large Seamaster , which could not be hoisted by a crane. The Seamaster program was cancelled and the ship was decommissioned.

Operational: AV 4 in the Pacific during WWII AV 5 in the Atlantic. Postwar both apparently remained in seaplane support roles, unlike many other AVs which transferred to non-aviation roles.

Departure from Service/Disposal: Both decommissioned in the late 1950's/early 1960's, but Albemarle was reactivated, renamed, and converted to a helicopter repair ship in 1965. Conversion of a second sister to ARVH 2 was cancelled.

DANFS History

Built by New York SB. Laid down 25 March 1938, launched 20 April 1940, commissioned 15 November 1940. Damaged at Pearl Harbor 7 December 1941 aircraft crashed into aft crane. Kamikaze 21 June 1945.

Remained in service postwar. Decommissioned to reserve 24 September 1957. Stricken for disposal 1 July 1963 subsequently sold and scrapped in 1972.

DANFS History

Built by New York SB. Laid down 12 June 1939, launched 13 July 1940, commissioned 20 December 1940. Served in the Atlantic during WWII. Modified to support the Seamaster flying boat 1956-57.

Decommissioned to reserve 1960 (date?). Stricken for disposal 1 September 1962 but not sold.

Re-instated on the Naval Vessels Register 8/1964 and converted at Charleston Navy Yard as a helicopter repair ship to support US Army helicopters in Vietnam. Conversion included removal of all weapons, small helicopter deck forward, workshop superstructure extended to the stern with a helicopter platform atop it, extensive helicopter repair shops. Renamed Corpus Christi Bay , redesignated ARVH 1 and placed in service 27 March 1965. Ship had a civilian crew (plus 308 Army personnel in the repair shops) was under MSTS/MSC administrative control (as T-ARVH 5) and Army operational control.

Decommissioned 1973, stricken for disposal 31 December 1974. Subsequently sold and scrapped.

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Currituck class heavy seaplane tenders
Displacement: 14,300 tons trial
Dimensions: 540.5 x 69 x 22 feet/164.7 x 21 x 6.7 meters
Propulsion: Steam turbines, 4 boilers, 2 shafts, 12,000 hp, 19.2 knots
Crew: 1247
Armor: none
Armament: 4 single 5/38 DP, 4 quad 40 mm AA
Aircraft: Large seaplane working deck

Concept/Program: Continuation of the purpose-built heavy seaplane tenders, using a modified Curtiss class design. Notes for that class apply here, except as noted. Three additional ships were planned (AV 18-20), but by 1944 it was clear that these vessels could not be completed before early 1947 due to labor shortages and problems in obtaining propulsion machinery. Thus C-3 hulls were substituted (see below), but these were also cancelled and replaced by C-3 type destroyer tenders.

Design: The major change from the Curtiss class was one instead of two stacks, and related engine room modifications. A catapult was fitted aft so they could launch Marine Corps floatplane dive bombers in forward areas, but they did not operate in this role.

Operational: Only AV 7 served in the Pacific during WWII. Two ships completed too late to see any WWII combat service. Postwar three ships rotated as command ship for Western Pacific naval aviation and the Taiwan patrol force, while also serving in their seaplane role.

Departure from Service/Disposal: Norton Sound became an experimental ship soon after WWII and ceased to operate as a seaplane vessel. The other survived until decommissioning in 1967.

DANFS History

Built by New York SB. Laid down 14 December 1942, launched 11 September 1943, commissioned 26 June 1944.

Served in the Pacific. Remained in service postwar. Decommissioned to reserve 31 October 1967, stricken for disposal 1 April 1971. Subsequently sold and scrapped.

DANFS History

Built by Los Angeles SB. Laid down 7 September 1942, launched 28 November 1943, commissioned 28 November 1943.

Assumed the role of missile test and experimentation ship soon after WWII. Redesignated as a guided missile ship (AVM 1) 8 August 1951. Testing started with captured enemy weapons, and eventually included nearly every USN missile, as well as many missile launchers, radars, etc. Served a Typhon test ship, then as Aegis test ship from 1974 to decommissioning, testing radars, missiles, launchers, etc. Decommissioned 11 December 1986, stricken for disposal 27 January 1987. Final disposal uncertain.

DANFS History

Built by Los Angeles SB. Laid down 16 November 1942, launched 26 February 1944, commissioned 26 April 1945.

Remained in service postwar. Decommissioned to reserve 17 June 1967. Stricken for disposal 1 February 1971, subsequently sold and scrapped.

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Salisbury Sound
ex- Puget Sound
AV 13
Photos: [As completed], [1960's].

DANFS History

Built by Los Angeles SB. Laid down 10 April 1943, launched 18 June 1944, commissioned 26 November 1945.

Remained in service postwar. Decommissioned to reserve 31 March 1967. Stricken for disposal 1971(?), subsequently sold and scrapped.

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Tangier class heavy seaplane tenders
Displacement: 11,760 tons trial
Dimensions: 492 x 69.5 x 22 feet/150 x 21.2 x 6.7 meters
Propulsion: Steam turbines, 2 boilers, 1 shaft, 8,500 hp, 16.5 knots
Crew: 1075
Armor: none
Armament: 1 single 5/38 DP, 4 single 3/50 AA, 4 dual 40 mm AA, 15 single 20 mm AA
Aircraft: seaplane working deck only

Concept/Program: Freighters taken over and converted to seaplane tenders during construction in order to fill an immediate need for additional tenders. These ships shared many features with the two classes of freighter conversions which followed, and may be considered half-sisters to those ships.

Class: Maritime Commission C3-Cargo(S) type.

Design/Conversion: Seaplane working deck was fitted aft of the bridge superstructure, raised one level above the main deck. A single large seaplane crane was fitted aft of the seaplane deck, at the extreme stern. Seaplane servicing and utility boats were carried on deck forward of the bridge. Cargo holds converted to berthing, stores and spares storage, repair shops, etc. as needed for seaplane support duties. The overall appearance and configuration of these ships was not drastically altered from the freighter appearance. These ships were converted prior to completion as merchant ships.

Modifications: Armament underwent several changes: initially 4 5/38 single mounts were carried these were changed to 1 5/38 and several 40 mm. The armament was increased during the war the figures given above are for end-of-war configuration.

Modernization: No major modernizations.

Operational: Served in the Pacific.

Departure from Service/Disposal: Both laid up in reserve immediately postwar, but retained in reserve until 1961, when they were stricken.

ex merchant Sea Arrow
AV 8
Photos: [ Tangier ].

DANFS History

Built by Moore Drydock. Laid down 13 March 1939, launched 15 September 1939, acquired by USN 8 July 1940, renamed, commissioned 25 August 1941.

Decommissioned to reserve 5 October 1946. Stricken for disposal 1 June 1961 subsequently sold and scrapped.

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ex merchant Exchequer
AV 9
Photos: [ Pocomoke ].

DANFS History

Built by Ingalls. Laid down 14 August 1938, launched 8 June 1940, acquired by USN 16 October 1940, renamed, commissioned 18 July 1941.

Decommissioned to reserve 10 July 1946. Stricken for disposal 1 June 1961 subsequently sold and scrapped.

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Chandeleur heavy seaplane tender
Displacement: 13,700 tons full load
Dimensions: 492 x 69.5 x 22 feet/150 x 21.2 x 6.7 meters
Propulsion: Steam turbines, 2 boilers, 1 shaft, 9,350 hp, 70 knots
Crew: 1075
Armor: none
Armament: 1 single 5/38 DP, 4 single 3/50 AA, 4 dual 40 mm AA, 15 single 20 mm AA
Aircraft: seaplane working deck only

Concept/Program: Continuation of the C3-to-AV conversion program almost identical to the Tangier class, but used C3-S-B1 hull. All notes for Tangier class apply to this ship.

Departure from Service/Disposal: Decommissioned immediately postwar, but served as a station/HQ ship while in reserve.

AV 10
Photos: [ Chandeleur ].

DANFS History

Built by Western Pipe. Laid down 29 May 1941, launched 29 November 1941, acquired by USN and commissioned 19 November 1942.

Decommissioned to reserve 12 February 1947. While in reserve she served as a station ship and as HQ ship for the Atlantic reserve fleet. Stricken for disposal 1 April 1971 subsequently sold and scrapped.

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Kenneth Whiting class heavy seaplane tenders
Displacement: 12,610 tons full load
Dimensions: 492 x 69.5 x 22 feet/150 x 21.2 x 6.7 meters
Propulsion: Steam turbines, 2 boilers, 1 shaft, 8,500 hp, 16.5 knots
Crew: 1077
Armor: none
Armament: 2 single 5/38 DP, 2 quad, 2 dual 40 mm AA, 16 single 20 mm AA
Aircraft: seaplane working deck only

Concept/Program: Continuation of the C3-to-AV conversion program. Nearly identical to the previous classes, except built on C3-Special hulls. The crane was moved to the forward end of the seaplane deck to make space for a 5/38 mount aft. All notes for Tangier class apply, except as noted. The last three vessels were replacements for cancelled Currituck class ships, but were themselves cancelled in favor of destroyer tenders - ships which would be much more useful than seaplane tenders in the postwar world.

Departure from Service/Disposal: Most decommissioned immediately postwar, but one remained in service as a tender/aviation station ship through the 1950's.

Kenneth Whiting
AV 14
Photos: [During WWII] [1950's]

DANFS History

Built by Todd-Pacific. Laid down 19 June 1943, launched 15 December 1944, commissioned 8 May 1944.

Remained in service postwar. Decommissioned to reserve 30 September 1958. Stricken for disposal 1 July 1961 subsequently sold and scrapped.

DANFS History

Built by Todd-Pacific. Laid down 19 July 1943, launched 11 January 1944, commissioned 26 June 1944.

Decommissioned to reserve 15 January 1947. Stricken for disposal 1 July 1963 subsequently sold and scrapped.

DANFS History

Built by Todd-Pacific. Laid down 4 August 1943, launched 14 February 1944, commissioned 24 July 1944.

Decommissioned to reserve 10 April 1947. Stricken for disposal 1 July 1963 and transferred to MarAd for layup. Transferred to Italy 10 December 1968 as Andrea Bafile (A5314) converted as special forces support ship. Laid up in unmaintained reserve during the 1980's stricken for disposal 31 May 1995. Subsequently sold and scrapped.

DANFS History

Built by Todd-Pacific. Laid down 25 August 1943, launched 11 January 1944, commissioned 21 August 1944.

Decommissioned to reserve 27 May 1947. Stricken for disposal 1 July 1961 subsequently sold and scrapped.

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AV 18
Photos: [No photos available]

DANFS History

Laid down at Todd-Pacific (date?) cancelled 8/1945 and scrapped.

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AV 19
Photos: [No photo available]

DANFS History

Laid down at Bremerton Navy Yard (date?) cancelled 10/1944 and scrapped.

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Hobe Sound
AV 20
Photos: [No photos available]

DANFS History

Laid down at Charleston Navy Yard (date?) cancelled 10/1944 and scrapped.

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Ashland class heavy seaplane docking tender
Specifications as originally built
Displacement: 4,500 tons
Dimensions: 457.5 x 72 x 18 feet/139.4 x 22 x 5.5 meters
Propulsion: VTE engines, 2 shafts, 7,400 hp, 17 knots
Crew: 240
Armor: none
Armament: 1 5/38 DP, 3 quad 40 mm AA
Aircraft: none

Concept/Program: Planned conversion of a WWII-era dock landing ship to a tender for Seamaster seaplanes. The docking well would have been used as small drydock for the seaplanes. Three ships were planned 11/1959, but the whole Seamaster program was soon cancelled. Ashland had been the first dock landing ship, and had been initially classified APM.

APM 1 - LSD 1 - AV 21
Photos: [ Ashland during the 1950's]

DANFS History

Planned conversion cancelled 1960.

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No ships selected
AV 22 & AV 23
Two further conversions were planned, but the LSDs to be converted were never identified. Designations AV 22 and 23 were reserved for these conversions, which were cancelled in 1960.

George Monck, 1st duke of Albemarle

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George Monck, 1st duke of Albemarle, in full George Monck, 1st duke of Albemarle, earl of Torrington, Baron Monck of Potheridge, Beauchamp and Teyes, Monck also spelled Monk, (born December 6, 1608, Great Potheridge, Devon, England—died January 3, 1670, London), English general who fought in Ireland and Scotland during the English Civil Wars and who was the chief architect of the Restoration of the Stuart monarchy in 1660, following 11 years of republican government.

Scion of a well-to-do Devon family, Monck served with the Dutch against the Spaniards in the Netherlands from about 1629 to 1638, distinguished himself in suppressing a rebellion in Ireland in 1642–43, and returned to England in 1643 in order to fight for King Charles I against the Parliamentarians. Captured at Nantwich, Cheshire, in January 1644, he was imprisoned for two years in the Tower of London.

After the defeat of the king’s cause in 1646, the Parliamentarians made Monck major general of an army sent to wipe out the Irish rebels. He had limited success, coming to terms with the rebels in 1649, and was forced to retire. In 1650 the Parliamentary commander Oliver Cromwell put him in charge of an infantry regiment assigned to suppress Scottish royalists. Monck fought beside Cromwell in the important victory over the Scots at Dunbar on September 3, 1650, and remained in Scotland as commander in chief, extending effective central control over the Highlands and Scottish islands for the first time in English history.

In November 1652 Monck was appointed one of three generals at sea in the First Dutch War and played a leading part in three of the English naval victories. In 1654, after successfully executing another campaign against royalist rebels in the Highlands of Scotland, he remained as governor at the behest of Cromwell, who had been appointed Lord Protector of the Commonwealth.

Monck at first supported Cromwell’s son and successor Richard but did not oppose the overthrow of the Protectorate and the recall of the “ Rump” of the Long Parliament. But when Major General John Lambert dissolved the Rump by force in October 1659, Monck refused to recognize the new military regime and, after ordering the Rump restored once again in December, led an army from Scotland against Lambert in January 1660, receiving the gratitude of the reassembled Rump Parliament.

Parliament was dissolved in March, and the newly elected Convention Parliament quickly invited Charles II to return to England as king. Charles’s Declaration of Breda, calling for amnesty, liberty of conscience, and other measures, was issued at Monck’s urging.

For his services in contributing to a peaceful restoration of Stuart rule, Monck was made Duke of Albemarle and a Knight of the Garter and was awarded a large annual pension. He also became master of the horse, lord lieutenant of Ireland, and captain general. He shared command of the English fleet during the latter half of the Second Dutch War (1665–67).

This article was most recently revised and updated by Michael Ray, Editor.

USS Albemarle (AV 5)

Decommissioned on 14 August 1950
Recommissioned on 2 October 1957
Decommissioned on 21 October 1960
Converted and recommissioned as aircraft repair ship helicopter USNS Corpus Christi Bay (T-ARVH-1) in January 1966
Decommissioned in 1973
Stricken on 31 December 1974
Sold to be broken up for scrap on 17 July 1975

Commands listed for USS Albemarle (AV 5)

Please note that we're still working on this section.

1Cdr. Henry Maston Mullinnix, USN20 Dec 19404 Mar 1941 ( 1 )
2Cdr. Harold Bushnell Sallada, USN4 Mar 19418 Apr 1942
3Cdr. Harold Letcher Meadow, USN8 Apr 19426 Oct 1942
4T/Capt. Irving Day Wiltsie, USN6 Oct 194212 Jun 1943
5T/Capt. Donald Edmund Wilcox, USN12 Jun 194326 Feb 1944
6T/Capt. Donald Lewis Mills, USN26 Feb 194411 May 1945
7T/Capt. Christian Harold DuBorg, USN11 May 1945

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Albermale AV-5 - History

USS Albemarle (AV-5) Shipmates

". ABBOTT, James Daniel "Danny". I happily stumbled across this marvelous site, and wish to request assistance in gathering info on my father's WW2 naval experience. His name was James Daniel "Danny" Abbott. He was born 4/22/16, and passed away 10/19/2000. He never talked much about the war, but I learned he was a CAEM on USS Albemarle (AV-5), and was definitely on her about Sept-Nov 1942, when assigned to the Pacific in the area of NAF/NAAF Galapagos, Seymour Island, Ecuador. I have a few photos of him with some of his buddies on the islands, but nothing of the USS Albemarle (AV-5) or any photos of "his" planes. He remarked that he flew often on PBM's, in various capacities, and told me about all the different aircraft he worked on, but. no photos. I just wondered if there were any old salts out there who may have known him. His home was usually Miami, FL, but for the last 10 years of his life, he and my step-mom lived happily in Blairsville, GA, in the foothills of the Appalachians. I'd appreciate hearing back from anyone who knew him, or who knew anything about the USS Albemarle (AV-5) around that time. THANKS VERY MUCH. James Daniel "Danny" Abbott [Deceased] c/o His Son Dana Abbott " [E-Mail Updated 01MAR2010 | E-Mail Updated 21FEB2005 | 21DEC2000]

ALLEN, Gale D. c/o His Grand Daughter Amy L [email protected] ". My grandfather, Gale D Allen served on the USS Albemarle (AV-5). I'm wondering if anyone knew him and what you could tell me about him. He was an Electritian, and served in the 1940's to the best of my knowledge. He is from Iowa. I hope that is enough information. Any replies would be appreciated. Thank you in advance. " [14JAN2002]

BLAKELY, Robert F. "Bob" ". I served aboard the USS Albemarle (AV-5) from December 1959 until she was decommissioned (21OCT60) as Disbursing Officer and Assistant Supply Officer. Our skipper was Captain Melvin and our XO was CDR Ward, both fine men. My boss was LCDR Ken Woollard, another fine officer. My closest friend certainly would have been Ed McDonald, our ship's dentist, with whom I played banjo to his fine Georgia guitar, much to the dismay of our tolerant Shipmates. W4 Boatswain's Mate Jim Eastman was also a particular friend. I loved my time on the old "Able Mable" and would really like to hear from former Shipmates. " [29MAR2011]

DEWEY, William E. [email protected] ". I was aboard the USS Albemarle (AV-5) for precommissioning and commissioning in October ,1957 with Capt. William Dean. I served under Capt. Charles Minter and Capt. Vincent de Poix. (Both Captains later became Vice Admirals). I have some great memories of being the OOD entering and leaving Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada and the cruise up the St. Lawrence Seaway. " [11MAR2001]

DuLONG, Robert Joseph ". I served aboard the USS Albemarle (AV-5) during the testing of the Atomic Bomb and on the USS Kasaan Bay (CVE-69) in Europe and two years out at sea. I would like to hear from former Shipmates. " [20AUG2011]

". FAMBROUGH, BM1 Joe M. My father, Joe M. Fambrough, BM1, USN (ret.) served aboard the USS Albemarle (AV-5) from 24 October 1946 to March 1948. I have some photos taken of USS Albemarle (AV-5) with notes it was docked at Key West, Fla. in 1947 at the time. Dad was BM2 aboard USS Albemarle (AV-5), then transferred to USS Manchester CL 83 before Operation Crossroads. Dad enlisted in Pensacola, Fla., in 1939 and went from there to the Pacific during World War II. Units he served in included ACORN 12 and PATSU 1-9. He was temporarily attached to CASU 8 before being assigned to CASU 39 Detachment A, which he used to call "Fighting Forward 39," and CASU 50. Kevin Fambrough " [BIO Updated 24FEB2005 | 23FEB2005]

". FOX, Paul. My father, Paul Fox, served aboard the USS Albemarle (AV-5) through 1946 and was present at Operation Crossroads. I have the Official Pictorial Record, his Navy photo (in uniform), his uniforms including cap, and the official post card issued by the Department of the Navy with the official seal imbossment on the card. The post card features a drawing of the atomic blast with the words printed on the top: "Rendezvous with Destiny-Bikini Atoll, 1946." On the bottom: "Glad to be Aboard, Sir!". " Contributed by Paul Fox [26MAR2013]

GARRISON, Bob ". I was assigned to the USS Albemarle (AV-5) in 1959, as its general medical officer, while it was being refitted at Phila.shipyard after the St. Lawrence Seaway event. Following shakedown to NAS Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, and a VP Squadron exercise at the mouth of the Rappahanock, we returned to NAS Norfolk, Virginia for Christmas, then to San Juan for about 3 months in support of Marine exercises at Vieques. Captain then was Agee Melvin. He was succeeded by Captain Vincent dePoix, later skipper of our first nuclear carrier, Enterprise. Interestingly, he Commanded the Enterprise during the blockade of Cuba during the missile crisis, while I was ashore in NAS Guantanamo Bay, Cuba with a surgical team. I later saw RADM dePoix twice more while stationed at NH Bethesda. While at San Juan, the ship visited the Virgin Islands. Also visited Port au Prince, before she returned to NAS Norfolk, Virginia for decommissioning. I was reassigned then to NH Bethesda for further training. During the year with the USS Albemarle (AV-5), I was most ably supported by an excellent group of HMs, who I would love to hear from, if they see this note. (Who could forget the 3 Hs, Hamalainen, Housenfluck, and Houston?) All of the ship's officers were very patient with me and my entire one month's experience in the Navy before joining the ship. (Would you believe seasick in the wardroom while still docked in Norfolk?). I especially remember XO CDR Ed. Ward LT Bennett (later killed in a plane crash) LT Dick Swadener, who named his first-born, a daughter, after mine Chaplain Foelber CDR Don Spoon Ed, our dental officer, and several other fine men whose names elude me after 44 years. " [06SEP2002]

GEORGE, Ray [email protected] ". I along with LT Dewey served on the Pre-com and commissioning of the USS Albemarle (AV-5) in 1957. Enjoyed my tour even though the P6M program flopped . Prior to that I served 4 years in VS-32 at NAS Norfolk, Virginia and NAS Quonset Point, Rhode Island. Flew the Turkey Bird (back-seat) and Ditched SR-17 with John Kneeland and LT BORS on May 1 1951. " [02AUG2001]

GOUMALATSOS, Michael c/o His Son Steven Goumas [email protected] ". My Father served aboard the USS Albemarle (AV-5) during Project Crossroads July 1946. He would like to contact Shipmates or their families. " [24FEB2001]

". HAYDEN, John O. My father, John O. Hayden, served aboard the USS Albemarle (AV-5) during the Baker Test in the Bikini Islands. As I understand he was the pay master on the ship. I am interested in information about those days in the Marshall Islands as he was not allowed to talk to us about it. He died in 1991. " Contributed by Susan Jones [11NOV2013]

HIDAY, Henry "Hank" c/o His Son Thomas A. Hiday [email protected] ". My father served on the USS Albemarle (AV-5) during WW-II. I was very happy to find this site with so much information. I have a personl log of his from the war that I will share if there is any interest. He was Henry "Hank" Hiday and was an Aviation Machinst Mate. At various times he flew in PBYs, PBMs, PV-1s, J2Fs and others. He was stationed in NAS Norfolk, Virginia for some of the war. " [10OCT2002]

HUBER, Alfred R. ". I also served aboard the USS Albemarle (AV-5) as a Seaman Quartermaster in the Navigation Department from the time she came out of moth balls in 1957 to the time she was decomissioned in 1960. Many of us were then transfered to the U.S.S. Forrestal which was in drydock at Norfolk Va. I still have the USS Albemarle (AV-5) cruise book and also some 8mm movies I put on vhs. Many memories from those days I can remember just like it was yesterday. Thanks. " [12APR2004]

". LYNN, CAPTAIN Joseph Sr. My father, CAPTAIN Joseph Lynn Sr., Retired recently died of what he called 'general breakdown'. He did so with all of his 6 children surviving, and as a recent great grandfather. After the death of his beloved wife Janet in 1995, my father remarried, and my dearly beloved step-mom Peggy is now graced with more children than she can control. I'm hoping to create a webpage in honor of one of the most impressive persons I've ever met, and I would appreciate any comments, photos or information that any of the thousands of people who've had the fortune to meet him might add. I would especially like to hear from his old squadron members (CO VP-6, CO USS Albemarle (AV-5), XO NAS Pensacola, Florida, CO NAAS Saufley Field, Pensacola, Florida, Naval War College, and then to staff NAS Norfolk, Virginia) and Dewey Ostrom, if anyone knows whether he's still around. Joe Lynn (very junior) " [25JAN2003]

MOOREHEAD, Ernest A. [email protected] ". Served aboard USS Albemarle (AV-5) in 1950 as seaman. Got off at Brooklyn Navy Yard in 1950. Would love to hear from anyone aboard this ship then or about Reunions that take place. " [24SEP2001]

NELSON, Burt Erickson [email protected] ". I read the log of the USS Albemarle (AV-5) with amusement when it came to 1945. There was a big gap and I wondered if any remember that embarrassing time on Oct. 2 when, after anchoring a while in Gatun Lake, the USS Albemarle (AV-5) ran aground in the Panama Canal! Not an easy feat. I was on the boat deck at the time, one of the few of about 2000 swabbies being transported, who were sleeping in the hammocks we lugged around. All the rest of the draft were in racks in the hangar aft. Until then, we were headed for sunny Hawaii, but losing the starboard screw screwed us up. The poor ole USS Albemarle (AV-5) limped up the Baja California coast, heaving to on the way to send a Sick Bay case over to a destroyer by breeches buoy, and on to Treasure Island where we were all transferred to the USS Gen. Pope and instead of the pleasant Hawaiian Isles, we found ourselves on jungled Calicoan Island off Samar as part of a SeaBee operation. There I sat for nine months. The only Japs I saw were a handful of PWs we had in a camp, the remnant of the Leyte Gulf campaign. This fills the gap in the log a bit. To be precise, we left Norfolk September 25, 1945 at 11 a.m. and arrived off Panama at 5 a.m. on the 30th, entering Limon Bay at daybreak where we lay at anchor. We moored at Pier 3 at the Naval Base at Coco Solo and went on liberty that evening at Colon. We weighed anchor at 10 a.m. October 2 and embarked on what was not the Navy's proudest example of seamanship, seeing how many times the USS Albemarle (AV-5) had transited the canal. For me it turned out well as I wrangled the job of editing the Pope's shipboard paper, the same job I had in June of '46 heading stateside aboard the Gen. Randall and went on to a lifelong career as a newspaperman. All because a ship ran aground. Join the Navy and learn a trade. " [02NOV2001]

". SILLER, Arnold F. I am the daughter of Arnold Francis Siller, Ret. CPO. who served on the USS Albemarle (AV-5) as their meterologist. I've tried to find him listed in the crew book and he wasn't there. I remember celebrating my birthday along with my mother and sister on the USS Albemarle (AV-5) approximately sometime in June, I believe in 1957. I was hoping to find someone who served with my dad and remembers the birthday party. My dad, Arnold F. Siller, retired from NAS Lakehurst, New Jersey in 1960. I'm sorry to report that dad died on January 30, 1987 of Lung Cancer. Dad joined the Navy in 1940 at the age of 17 to serve in WWII and retired in 1960. Dad went on to be a meterologist with Federal Government serving at Wallops Island, VA. Then when his duty there ended in 1965, the Government transferred dad to Lexington, KY as a meterologist at Bluegrass Airport until he retired in 1978 and returned to New England, Milton, NH where he was put to rest in Milton Mills Cemetary in 1987. " Contributed by Judy Ellen Siller [10MAR2010]

SMITH, Roy ". USS Albemarle (AV-5) WWII. Reading Burt Erickson Nelson's comments RE this ship damaging a screw, while negotiating the Panama Canal surely brought back some memories. I was aboard. A young swab jockey just old enough to enlist with the consent of my parents. After boot camp, Co. 3203, 3rd Training Reg. Building 319-U, I returned from leavy and was transported via rail to a then unknown destination where I along with many others boarded the USS Albemarle (AV-5). Put to work in the Chief's quarters, I helped with kitchen duties and with obtaining the food from the main kitchen. One thing I recall about this trip was the heat. I slept on deck most of the time. I recall limping up the cost to board the General John Pope. Ended up on Samar Island, PI Navy 3142. If anyone reads this and Burt Nelson's comments, I would appreciate any information from you. " [24OCT2004]

TEBO, Kenneth M. ". Kenneth M. Tebo was born in Marlborough, Massachusetts, in 1919. In 1936 he entered Admiral Farragut Academy (Pine Beach, New Jersey) and enlisted in the Naval Reserves in order to be able to compete for enrollment in the Naval Academy. He enrolled in the Academy in 1937 and graduated on February 7, 1941. Tebo served as an officer aboard the USS ROPER (DD147) on anti-submarine patrol along the Atlantic coast (1941-1942) attended gunnery school in Washington, D.C. (1942-1943) attended flight training in NAS Dallas, Texas, and NAS Pensacola, Florida, and received his wings and served as Executive Officer of VP-45, which operated on anti-submarine patrols out of NAF Belem, Brazil. In 1945, he attended post-graduate school in aeronautical engineering, after which he served as Executive Officer for FASRON-117 in Hawaii, and anti-submarine warfare officer for FAW-2. During the Korean War, he served as aviation fleet readiness officer on the staff of the commander-in-chief of the Pacific Fleet. He then served as branch head (1953) for the Torpedo Research and Development Branch of the Bureau of Ordinance was Commanding Officer of FASRON-101 at NAS Quonset Point, Rhode Island (1955-1957) and Executive Officer on the seaplane tender USS Albemarle (AV-5) (1957-1959). His final duty with the Navy was as head of the Program Evaluation Branch which analyzed the status of the Polaris nuclear submarine/missile project (1959-1961). Tebo retired from the Navy in 1961, after which he worked at General Motors (1961-1963) as director of program analysis, with the Midwest Research Institute (1963-1965) on Program Management Techniques, the Central Intelligence Agency (1965-1975) as program manager for scientific intelligence gathering, and at George Washington University in continuing engineering education (1975-1988). " [12JUL2003]

". TUNNICLIFF, Raymond. My grandfather, Raymond Tunnicliff, was a Shipmate aboard the USS Albemarle (AV-5). If anyone knew him, please feel free to email me with stories as he passed away before I was born. Thank you. Stacey " [10JUN2004]

". WARD, CDR Edward M. Jr. Retired. My Father, Edward M. Ward Jr., passed away in 2006. Dad's records show he was commissioned an Ensign USNR (1941), PBY Instructor at NAS Corpus Christi, Texas (where I was born) (1943), arrived in theater as a PB4Y-2 Pilot (Okinawa) one day after the war was over (1945), Pilot Utility Squadron located at Johnsville, PA. (1946), Instructor GCA at NAS Moffett Field, California (1948), VXE-6 participated in Operation Ski Jump I and II (1950), Operations Officer Utility Squadron at NAS Chincoteague, Virginia (1952), attended Naval Lion's School Monterey, California (1955), VXE-6 Executive Officer (1956), VU-4 (Commanding Officer) at VU-4 at NAS Chincoteague, Virginia (1958), USS Albemarle (AV-5) (Executive Officer) (1960), NAS Minneapolis, Minnesota (Executive Officer) (1962), Naval Parachute Riggers School at NAS Lakehurst, New Jersey (Commanding Officer) (1963), Naval Publishing and Supply Depot, Philadelphia, PA (1965) and retired from Active Duty (1968). Dad was "true Navy" up to the day he passed away. I used to listen in amazement to his airplane stories and wonder how he managed to do all the things he did. He was also a devout Christian and credited the Almighty with pulling him through some tight situations. I would like to hear from any of Dad's former Shipmates. " Contributed by Ed Ward Jr. [09AUG2010]

Albermale AV-5 - History

USS Albemarle (AV-5) Reunions

REUNIONs: ". The 18th annual reunion of the USS Albemarle (AV-5) / USS Corpus Christi Bay (ARVH-1) Reunion Association will be held May 21, 22, 23, 2006 at Corpus Christi, Texas. Join Shipmates, Spouses and Families from all phases of our ship's history - from WW II, Operation Crossroads, through the NASA tracking era, and to Vietnam. 2006 marks the 40th anniversary of the ship's sailing from Corpus Christi, and this Reunion titled "Homecoming and Remembrance" will feature many special touches in honor of that occasion. For further information contact: Bruce Binns, President and Reunion Co-coordinator at: 1985 West C. Avenue, Kalamazoo MI 49009-9342. Phone 269-345-6279. Or by email: Thanks, Ron Reid. " [23OCT2005]

REUNIONs: ". The 17th annual reunion of the USS Albemarle (AV-5) / USS CORPUS CHRISTI BAY (ARVH-1) Reunion Association will be held May 15, 16, 17, 2005 at Mobile Albama. Join Shipmates, spouses and families from all phases of our ship's history - from WW II, Operation Crossroads, through the NASA tracking era, and to Vietnam. Renew old friendships and recapture those memories of times past. For further information contact: Bruce Binns, President and Reunion Co-ordinator at: 1985 West C Avenue, Kalamazoo MI 49009-9342. Phone: 269-345-6279. Or by email: Thanks, Ron Reid " [10NOV2004]

REUNIONs: ". The 16th annual reunion of the USS Albemarle (AV-5) / USS CORPUS CHRISTI BAY (ARVH-1) Reunion Association will be held May 16-18, 2004, in Washington DC. A plaque honoring those who served aboard her from WW II through Vietnam will be dedicated at the US Navy Memorial at that time. For information about our association and our reunion, please contact: Ron Reid, 6 North Maple St., East Hampton CT 06424, (860)267-2825, or email: Thanks, Ron Reid. " [19NOV2003]

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