History of LST - 900 - 950 - History

History of LST - 900 - 950  - History

LST - 900 - 950

LST-901

LST - 901 was laid down on 29 October 1944 at Pittsburgh, Pa., by the Dravo Corp.; launched on 9 December 1944; sponsored by Mrs. S. A. Evans; and commissioned on 11 January 1945, Lt. C. Henson in command. Following World War II, LST-901 performed occupation duty in the Far East until early September 1945. She was decommissioned on 9 August 1946 and assigned to the Pacific Reserve Fleet. Recommissioned on 30 November 1951, LST-901 saw extensive service during the Korean War and the Vietnam War. On 1 July 1955, she was redesignated Litchfield County (LST-901) (q.v.) after a county in northwestern Connecticut. Decommissioned again on 6 December 1969, Litchfield County was sold to John S. Latsis, Inc., New York, N.Y., on 14 January 1977. LST-901 earned two battle stars for the Korean War, and one award of the Navy Unit Commendation, one award of the Meritorious Unit Commendation, and six battle stars for Vietnam service.

LST-902

LST - 902 was laid down on 5 November 1944 at Pittsburgh, Pa., by the Dravo Corp.; launched on 16 December 1944; sponsored by Mrs. Michael Grom; and commissioned on 15 January 1945, Lt. Everett J. Bondesen in command. Following World War II, LST-902 performed occupation duty in the Far East until early November 1945. She was decommissioned on 3 August 1946 and assigned to the Pacific Reserve Fleet. The ship was recommissioned on 18 January 1952 and saw service during the Korean War and with the Pacific Fleet thereafter. On 1 July 1955, she was redesignated Luzerne County (LST-902) (q.v.) after a county in eastern Pennsylvania. She was decommissioned on 30 November 1955 but was recommissioned once again on 29 March 1963 and operated extensively in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War. Decommissioned for the final time, Luzerne County was struck from the Navy list on 12 August 1970. LST-902 earned two battle stars for the Korean War and one award of the Meritorious Unit Commendation and 12 battle stars for Vietnam service.

LST-903

LST - 903 was laid down on 15 October 1944 at Pittsburgh, Pa., by the Dravo Corp.; launched on 23 December 1944; sponsored by Mrs. E. W. Wilson; and commissioned on 20 January 1945, Lt. John B. Darrow in command. Following World War II, LST-903 performed occupation duty in the Far East until mid-October 1945. She was decommissioned on 10 September 1946 and assigned to the Pacific Reserve Fleet. On 1 July 1955, the ship was redesignated Lyman County (LST-903) (q.v.) after a county in South Dakota. Lyman County was designated a target ship on 20 October 1958 and struck from the Navy list on 1 November that same year. She was torpedoed and sunk by Mevhaden (SS377) on 28 March 1959 off the coast of Baja California.

LST - 904

LST - 904 was laid down on 12 November 1944 at Pittsburgh, Pa., by the Dravo Corp.; launched on 23 December 1944; sponsored by Miss Betty McCallen; and commissioned on 25 January 1945, Lt. James L. Randles, Jr., in command. During World War II, LST-904 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in June 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East until early December 1945. The ship was decommissioned on 15 November 1946 and assigned to the Pacific Reserve Fleet. On 1 July 1955, she was redesignated Lyon County (LST- 904) (q.v.) after counties in Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Minnesota, and Nevada. Lyon County was nominated as a target for destruction on 20 October 1958 and struck from the Navy list on 1 November that same year. She was sunk off the coast of Washington by Capitaine (SS336) on 13 May 1959. LST-904 earned one battle star for World War II service.

LST - 905

LST - 905 was laid down on 19 November 1944 at Pittsburgh, Pa., by the Dravo Corp.; launched on 30 December 1944; sponsored by Mrs. Paul Gulling; and commissioned on 20 January 1945. During World War II, LST-905 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in June 1945. She was decommissioned on 11 September 1946 and assigned to the Pacific Reserve Fleet. On 1 July 1955, the ship was redesignated Madera County (LST-905) (q.v.) after a county in central California. Recommissioned on 30 March 1963, Madera County saw extensive service in the Vietnam War commencing in 1966. She was transferred to the Philippine Navy in November 1969 where she served as Ilteos Norte (LT-98). LST-905 earned one battle star for World War II service, and one award of the Meritorious Unit Commendation and nine battle stars for Vietnam service.

LST - 906

LST - 906 was laid down on 24 January 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 11 March 1944; sponsored by Mrs. Henry Levine; and commissioned on 27 April 1944. During World War II, LST-906 was assigned to the European theater and participated in the invasion of southern France in September 1944. She was decommissioned on 20 May 1945 after grounding off Leghorn, Italy, on 18 October 1944. The ship was struck from the Navy list on 22 June 1945 and sold for scrap. LST-906 earned one battle star for World War II service.

LST - 907

LST - 907 was laid down on 31 January 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 18 March 1944; sponsored by Miss Rosemary Leonard; and commissioned on 30 April 1944, Lt. Dale 0. Morgan, USNR, in command. During World War II, LST-907 was assigned to the European theater and participated in the invasion of southern France in September 1944. She was decommissioned on 18 October 1946. On 25 November 1946, the ship was delivered to and commissioned in the Venezuelan Navy and struck from the Navy list that same date. LST-907 earned one battle star for World War II service.

LST-908

LST-908 was laid down on 14 February 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 28 March 1944; sponsored by Mrs. Charles E. Monorief; and commissioned on 8 May 1944. During World War II, LST-908 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the following operations: The LST-908 went in the Palau-Anguar, invasion, the first day on September 17, 1944. It landed the 710th Tank Battalion. Leyte landings-October and November 1944 Mindoro landings-December 1944 Lingayen Gulf landings-January 1945 Zambales-Subic Bay-January 1945 Assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto-April 1945 Immediately following World War II, LST-908 performed occupation duty in the Far East until early April 1946. Upon her return to the United States, she was decommissioned on 30 July 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 28 August that same year. On 3 October 1947, the ship was sold to Luria Bros. & Co., Philadelphia, Pa., for scrapping. LST-908 earned five battle stars for World War II service.

LST-909

LST-909 was laid down on 19 February 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 3 April 1944; and commissioned on 11 May 1944. During World War II, LST-909 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the Lingayen Gulf landings in January 1945 and the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in April 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East until early February 1946. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 21 June 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 31 July that same year. On 19 May 1948, the ship was sold to Kaiser Co., Inc., Vancouver, Wash., for scrapping. LST-909 earned two battle stars for World War II service.

By William Copeland RM3c

May I respectfully suggest that there are some errors in May I respectfully suggest that there are some errors in the history of our beloved LST 909. She did indeed participate in all the same initial operations as the LST 908. We were awarded 3 battle stars and there is some question as to whether we were initial or immediate backup on the Lingayen Gulf operation. I served with PRIDE aboard her and as a plank owner and radioman until my hospitalization on July 4th 1944 and along with some seventy odd crewmen have been meeting together for the last seven years. Unfortunately I was wounded in the Mindoro action and finally hospitalized some 7 months later. All this information can be verified by a number of those who meet with us every year. If it is at all possible we would greatly appreciate having at least your records changed to reflect our ships TRUE record. If you need any further information we would gladly supply copies of the! log for the days in question. We apoligize for lack of inforemation sent initially to the Navy Dept. Thank you for reading my plea... William Copeland RM3c

LST-910

LST-910 was laid down on 23 February 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 8 April 1944; sponsored by Mrs. Gerald Donovan; and commissioned on 24 May 1944, Lt. Harold V. Ruble in command. During World War II, LST-910 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the following operations: Battle of Surigao Strait-November 1944 Lingayen Gulf landing-January 1945 Zambales-Subic Bay-January 1945 Palawan Islands landings-February and March 1945 Mindanao Island Iandings-April and May 1945 Balikpapan operation-June and July 1945 Following the war, LST-910 performed occupation duty in the Far East and saw service in China until early April 1946. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 27 June 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 31 July that same year. The ship was sold on 25 November 1948 to the Bethlehem Steel Co., Bethlehem, Pa., for scrapping. LST-910 earned three battle stars for World War II service.

LST - 911

LST - 911 was laid down on 28 February 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 12 April 1944; sponsored by Mrs. Christine Muir; and commissioned on 14 May 1944, Lt. M. T. Saffield in command. During World War II, LST-911 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the following operations: Morotai landings- September 1944 Leyte landings-November 1944 Lingayen Gulf landings-January 1945 Mindanao Island landings-April 1945 Balikpapan operation-June and July 1945 Following the war, LST-911 performed occupation duty in the Far East until mid-April 1946. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 24 June 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 31 July that same year. On 25 September 1947, the ship was sold to the Puget Sound Bridge & Dredging Co., Seattle, Wash for scrapping. LST-912 earned four battle stars for World War II service.

LST - 912

LST - 912 was laid down on 5 February 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 22 April 1944; sponsored by Mrs. Hazel B. Leppe; and commissioned on 21 May 1944, Lt. Lloyd R. White in command. During World War II, LST-912 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the following operations: Morotai landings-September 1944 Leyte landings-November 1944 Lingayen Gulf landing-January 1945 Palawan Island landings-February and March 1945 Mindanao Island landings-April 1945 Following the war, LST-912 performed occupation duty in the Far East and saw service in China until mid-January 1949. On 1 July 1955, she was redesignated Mahnomen County (LST-912) (q.v.) after a county in northwestern Minnesota. The ship was decommissioned on 25 August 1955 and assigned to the Atlantic Reserve Fleet. Recommissioned on 27 March 1963, Maknomen County performed extensive service in Southeast Asia, including Vietnam, before she grounded at ChuIai, South Vietnam, on 30 December 1966 as a result of typhoon weather. Efforts to refloat her were unsuccessful, and she was struck from the Navy list on 31 January 1967. Mahnomen County was later demolished by the Navy Support Detachment at Chulai. LST-912 earned four battle stars for World War II service and two battle stars for the Vietnam War.

LST - 913

LST - 913 was laid down on 15 March 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.* launched on 26 April 1944; and commissioned on 23 May 1944. During World War II, LST-913 was assigned to the European theater and participated in the invasion of southern France in August and September 1944. She was then assigned to the Asiatic-Pacific theater and took part in the Leyte landings in November 1944 and the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in June 1945. Following the war, LST-913 performed occupation duty in the Far East until mid-December 1945. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 16 July 1946 and struck from the Navy list. on 14 March 1947. On 18 June 1948, the ship was sold to the Humble Oil and Refining Co., Houston, Tex., for operation. LST-913 earned three battle stars for World War II service.

LST-914

LST - 914 was laid down on 16 February 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 18 April 1944; and commissioned on 18 May 1944, Lt. Meyer in command. During World War II, LST-914 was assigned to the European theater and participated in the invasion of southern France in August and September 1944. She was then assigned to the Asiatic-Pacific theater and took part in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in May and June 1945. Following the war, the ship performed occupation duty in the Far East until mid-November 1945. LST-914 was decommissioned on 26 June 1946 and loaned to the Army. Reverting to Navy control, LST-914 was recomissioned on 26 August 1950 and performed extensive service during the Korean War. Following the war, she conducted deployments to the western Pacific in 1954, 1956, and 1958. During this period, on I July 1955, the ship was redesignated Mahoning County (LST-914) (q.v.) after a county in Ohio. Decommissioned again on 5 September 1959, Mahoning County was sold to Zidell Explorations, Portland, Oreg., on 22 June 1960 for scrapping. LST-914 earned two battle stars for World War II service and four battle stars and one award of the Navy Unit Commendation for the Korean War.

LST-915

LST - 915 was laid down on 22 March 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 3 May 1944; and commissioned on 27 May 1944. Following World War II, LST-915 performed occupation duty in the Far East until early April 1946. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 25 June 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 31 July that same year. On 19 June 1948, the ship was sold to the Humble Oil and Refining Co., Houston, Tex., for operation.

LST-916

LST - 916 was laid down on 22 March 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 29 April 1944; and commissioned on 25 May 1944. During World War II, LST-916 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the following operations: Leyte landings-October 1944 Lingayen Gulf landings-January 1945 Assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto-April 1945 Following the war, LST-916 performed occupation duty in the Far East until mid-November 1945. She was decommissioned on 5 April 1946 and transferred to the Army on 28 June that same year. On 29 September 1947, she was struck from the Navy list; and, in 1949, LST-916 was lost in a typhoon at Okinawa. LST-916 earned three battle stars for World War II service.

LST-917

LST - 917 was laid down on 31 March 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 6 May 1944; and commissioned on 28 May 1944. During World War II, LST-917 was assigned to the Asiatic-Pacific theater and participated in the following operations: Leyte landings-October 1944 Morotai landings-December 1944 and January 1945 Lingayen Gulf landing-January 1945 Mindanao Island landings-January 1945 Assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto-March and April 1945 Following the war, LST-917 performed occupation duty in the Far East until mid-December 1945. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 24 May 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 3 July that same year. LST-917 earned five battle stars for World War II service.

LST - 918

LST - 918 was laid down on 5 April 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 7 May 1944; and commissioned on 29 May 1944, Lt. Paul Cherin, USNR, in command. During World War 11, LST-918 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the Leyte landings in October 1944 and the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto from March through June 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East until early January 1946. Upon her return to the United States, she was decommissioned on 12 June 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 31 July that same year. On 18 December 1947, the ship was sold to the Learner Co., Oakland, Calif., and subsequently scrapped. LST-918 earned two battle stars for World War II service.

LST - 919

LST - 919 was laid down on 11 April 1944 at Hingham' Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 17 May 1944; and commissioned on 31 May 1944. During World War II, LST-919 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the following operations: Leyte landings-October and November 1944 Lingayen Gulf landing-January 1945 Mindanao Island landings-April 1945 Following the war, LST-919 performed occupation duty in the Far East and saw service in China until early April 1946. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 5 August 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 25 September that same year. On 10 January 1948, the ship was sold to Pablo N. Ferrari & Co. for operation. LST-919 earned three battle stars for World War II service.

LST - 920

LST - 920 was laid down on 26 April 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 29 May 1944; and commissioned on 17 June 1944. During World War II, LST-920 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in June 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty and saw service in China until early March 1946. Upon her return to the United States, she was decommissioned on 8 July 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 14 March 1947. On 17 June 1948, the ship was sold to the Standard Oil & Gas Co. LST-920 earned one battle star for World War II service.

LST-921

LST-921 was laid down on 1 May 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 2 June 1944; and commissioned on 23 June 1944. LST-921 was torpedoed off the channel entrance to Bristol, England, on 14 August 1944. She was towed to port and stripped prior to decommissioning and disposal of the hulk. The ship was decommissioned on 29 September 1944 and struck from the Navy list on 14 October 1944.

LST-922

LST-922 was laid down on 26 April 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 7 June 1944; and commissioned on 29 June 1944. During World War II, LST-922 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the following operations: Lingayen Gulf landings-January 1945 Zambales-Subic Bay-January 1945 Palawan Islands landings-March 1945 Visayan Island landings-April 1945 Following the war, LST-922 performed occupation duty in the Far East and saw service in China until early March 1946. Upon her return to the United States, she was decommissioned on 8 July 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 28 August that same year. On 13 June 1948, the ship was sold to Walter W. Johnson Co. for scrapping. LST-922 earned three battle stars for World War II service. LST-923 LST-923 was laid down on 3 May 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 11 June 1944; and commissioned on 6 July 1944, Lt. John T. Gordon in command. During World War II, LST-923 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the Lingayen Gulf landing in January 1945 and the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in April through June 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East until early April 1946. Upon her return to the United States, she was decommissioned on 10 July 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 15 August that same year. The ship was sold on 31 May 1948 to the Bethlehem Steel Co., Bethlehem, Pa., for scrapping. LST-923 earned two battle stars for World War II service. LST-924 LST-924 was laid down on 8 May 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 17 June 1944; and commissioned on 10 July 1944. During World War 11, LST-924 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the following operations: Leyte landing-November 1944 Lingayen Gulf landings-January 1945 Visayan Island landings-March and April 1945 Tarakan Island operation-April and May 1945 Following the war, LST-924 performed occupation duty in the Far East and saw service in China until mid-May 1946. She was decommissioned on 13 June 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 3 July that same year. On 5 May 1947, the ship was sold to the Royal Navy of Thailand where it operated as Angthong (LST-1). LST-924 earned four battle stars for World War II service.

LST - 925

LST - 925 was laid down on 10 May 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 21 June 1944; and commissioned on 15 July 1944. During World War II, LST-925 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the Lingayen Gulf landing in January 1945. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 26 November 1945 and struck from the Navy list on 5 December that same year. On 9 May 1948, the ship was sold to Consolidated Builders Inc., Seattle, Wash., for scrapping. LST-925 earned one battle star for World War II service.

LST - 926

LST - 926 was laid down on 13 May 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 24 June 1944; and commissioned on 20 July 1944, Lt. Floyd H. Gould in command. During World War II, LST-926 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the Lingayen Gulf landing in January 1945 and the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto from April through June 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East until late March 1946. The ship was decommissioned on 14 June 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 31 July that same year. On 13 June 1948, the tank landing ship was sold to the Walter W. LST-926 earned two battle stars for World War II service.

LST - 927

LST - 927 was laid down on 20 May 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 28 June 1944; and commissioned on 4 July 1944. During World War II, LST-927 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the Lingayen Gulf landing in January 1945 and the Mindanao Island landings in March and April 1945. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 20 July 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 8 October that same year. On 9 December 1947, the ship was sold to the Learner Co., Oakland, Calif., for scrapping. LST-927 earned two battle stars for World War II service.

LST - 928

LST - 928 was laid down on 1 June 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 5 July 1944; and commissioned on 30 July 1944, Lt. R. Stearns, USNR, in command. During World War II, LST-928 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Iwo Jima in March 1945. She was decommissioned on 13 December 1946. LST-928 earned one battle star for World War II service.

LST-929

LST - 929 was laid down on 5 June 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 8 July 1944; and commissioned on 2 August 1944. During World War II, LST-929 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Iwo Jima in February 1945 and the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto from April through June 1945. On 15 September 1945, she was redesignated LSTH-929. Following the war, the ship performed occupation duty in the Far East and saw service in China until late May 1946. LSTH-929 was decommissioned on 24 May 1946 and turned over to the Chinese Nationalist Navy. She was struck from the Navy list on 3 July 1946. LST-929 earned two battle stars for World War II service.

LST-930

LST - 930 was laid down on 9 June 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 12 July 1944; sponsored by Mrs. Rocca; and commissioned on 6 August 1944, Lt. F. Grabowski in command. During World War II, LST-930 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Iwo Jima in February 1945 and the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto from April through June 1945. On 15 September 1945, she was redesignated LSTH-930 and performed occupation duty in the Far East until late October 1945. The ship returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 26 June 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 31 July that same year. On 8 June 1948, she was sold to the Humble Oil & Refining Co., Houston, Tex., for operation. LST-930 earned two battle stars for World War II service.

LST-931

LST - 931 was laid down on 13 June 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 19 July 1944; and commissioned on 11 August 1944, Lt. L. Berenbach in command. During World War II, LST-931 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Iwo Jima in February 1945 and the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto from April through June 1945. On 15 September 1945, she was redesignated LSTH-931 and performed occupation duty in the Far East until late October 1945. The tank landing ship was decommissioned on 26 June 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 31 July that same year. On 12 June 1948, she was sold to the Walter W. LST-931 earned two battle stars for World War II service.

LST-932

LST - 932 was laid down on 21 June 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 22 July 1944; and commissioned on 15 August 1944, Lt. Jerome, USNR, in command. During World War II, LST-932 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the Lingayen Gulf landing in January 1945 and the Mindanao Island landings in April and May 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East and saw service in China until mid- February 1946. On 29 March 1948, the ship was sold to the Standard Oil Co. LST-932 earned three battle stars for World War II service.

LST - 933

LST - 933 was laid down on 23 June 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 26 July 1944; sponsored by Miss Helen M. Long; and commissioned on 20 August 1944, Lt. (jg.) M. Stokes in command. During World War II, LST-933 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the following operations: Palawan Island landings-February and March 1945 Mindanao Island landings-April and May 1945 Assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto-June 1945 Following the war, LST-933 performed occupation duty in the Far East until mid-February 1946. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 2 July 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 15 August that same year. On 25 May 1948, the ship was sold to Hughes Bros., Inc., New York, N.Y., for scrapping. LST-933 earned two battle stars for World War II service.

LST - 934

LST - 934 was laid down on 29 June 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc., launched on 29 July 1944; and commissioned on 2 August 1944. During World War II, LST-934 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the following operations: Palawan Island landings-March 1945 Visayan Islands landings-March and April 1945 Mindanao Island landings-April 1945 Assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto-June 1945 Following the war, LST-934 performed occupation duty in the Far East and saw service in China until early May 1946. She was decommissioned on 13 May 1946 and transferred to the State Department that same day. On 19 June 1946, the ship was struck from the Navy list. LST-934 earned two battle stars for World War 11 service.

LST - 935

LST - 935 was laid down on 3 July 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 5 August 1944; and commissioned on 29 August 1944, Lt. (jg.) Bruce B. Wells in command. During World War II, LST-935 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the following operations: Palawan Island landings-March 1945 Visayan Islands landings-March and April 1945 Mindanao Island landings-April 1945 Balikpapan operation-June and July 1945 Following the war, LST-935 performed occupation duty in the Far East and saw service in China until mid-April 1946. The ship was sold to Consolidated Builders, Inc., Seattle, Wash., on 29 August 1947 for scrapping. LST-935 earned two battle stars for World War II service.

LST-936

LST - 936 was laid down on 7 July 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlebem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 9 August 1944; sponsored by Miss Dorothy M. Wadman; and commissioned on 1 September 1944. During World War II, LST-936 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the Mindanao Island landings in March and April 1945. Upon her return to the United States, she was decommissioned on 17 May 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 5 June that same year. On 12 June 1948, the ship was sold to the Walter W. LST-936 earned one battle star for World War II service.

LST-937

LST - 937 was laid down on 11 July 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 12 August 1944; sponsored by Mrs. H. Hartt; and commissioned on 6 September 1944. During World War 11, LST-937 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the Mindanao Island landings in April 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East and saw service in China until late May 1946. The ship was decommissioned on 24 May 1946 and transferred to the State Department on that date. LST-937 earned one battle star for World War II service.

LST-938

LST - 938 was laid down an 14 July 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 15 August 1944; and commissioned on 9 September 1944, Ens. Limes in command. During World War II, LST-938 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the Mindanao Island landings in March and April 1945 and the Balikpapan operation in June and July 1945. Followingthe war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East and saw service in China until mid-May 1946. After serving as a Naval Reserve training ship, LST-938 was decommissioned in December 1949 and assigned to the Atlantic Reserve Fleet. Recommissioned on 14 December 1951, she served as a Marine Corps training ship and was redesignated Maricopa County (LST-938) (q.v.) after a county in Arizona. She was decommissioned again on 29 February 1956. Maricopa County was struck from the Navy list on 1 June 1962 and transferred to the Vietnamese Navy on 12 July that same year where she served as Da Nang (HQ-501). LST-938 earned two battle stars for World War II service.

LST-939

LST - 939 was laid down on 21 July 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 23 August 1944; sponsored by Mrs. William Lovett; and commissioned on 14 September 1944. During World War II, LST-939 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto from April through June 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East and saw service in China until mid-March 1946. Upon her return to the United States, she was decommissioned on 22 June 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 31 July that same year. LST-939 earned one battle star for World War 11 service.

LST - 940

LST - 940 was laid down on 25 July 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 26 August 1944; and commissioned on 20 September 1944. During World War II, LST-940 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Iwo Jima in February 1945 and the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in April 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East and saw service in China until early April 1946. Upon her return to the United States, she was decommissioned on 13 July 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 28 August that same year. On 13 June 1948, the ship was sold to the Walter W. LST-940 earned two battle stars for World War II service.

LST- 941

LST-941 was laid down on 28 July 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 30 August 1944; sponsored by Mrs. Roland Gariepy; and commissioned on 22 September 1944. During World War II, LST-941 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the Palawan Island landings in March 1945 and the Visayan Islands landings in March and April 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East until early October 1945. The ship returned to the United States and was decommissioned on I May 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 3 July that same year. On 28 March 1947, she was sold to Francis R. Stolz for operation. LST-941 earned one battle star for World War II service.

LST - 942

LST - 942 was laid down on 1 August 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 6 September 1944; and commissioned on 26 September 1944. During World War II, LST-942 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the Visayan Islands landings in April 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East until midFebruary 1946. LST-942 returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 26 June 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 31 July that same year. On 10 June 1948, the ship was sold to the Humble Oil & Refining Co., of Houston, Tex., for operation. LST-942 earned one battle star for World War 11 service.

LST - 943

LST - 943 was laid down on 8 August 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 9 September 1944; sponsored by Miss Margaret Clarke; and commissioned on 30 September 1944. During World War II, LST-943 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Iwo Jima in February 1945 and the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in April 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East until mid-April 1946. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 16 July 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 25 September that same year. On 4 November 1947, the ship was sold to the Moore Drydock Co., of Oakland, Calif., for scrapping. LST-943 earned two battle stars for World War II service.

LST-944

LST - 944 was laid down on 11 August 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 13 September 1944; and commissioned on 4 October 1944. During World War 11, LST-944 was assigned to the Asiatic-Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Iwo Jima in February 1945 and the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto from April through June 1945. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 19 December 1945 and struck from the Navy list on 8 January 1946. On 26 September 1947, the ship was sold to the Boston Metals Co., of Baltimore, Md., for scrapping. LST-944 earned two battle stars for World War II service.

LST-945

LST - 945 was laid down on 11 August 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 16 September 1944; and commissioned on 9 October 1944. During World War II, LST-945 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto from April through June 1945. Following the war, she saw service in China until early 1946. The ship returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 16 April 1946 and transferred to the Maritime Administration for disposition on 29 May that same year. She was struck from the Navy list on 19 July 1946. LST-945 earned one battle star for World War II service.

LST-946

LST - 946 was laid down on 15 August 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 20 September 1944; sponsored by Miss Nancy Ruth Kerr; and commissioned on 12 October 1944, Ens. D. Schlarbaum in command. During World War 11, LST-946 was assigned to the Asiatic-Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto from March through May 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East until mid-February 1946. On 25 May 1948, the ship was sold to the California Co. LST-946 earned one battle star for World War II service.

LST-947

LST - 947 was laid down on IS August 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 23 September 1944; and commissioned on 15 October 1944, Lt. Rudolph Siemsson in command. During World War 11, LST-947 was assigned to the Asiatic-Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in April 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East until early July 1946. She was decommissioned on 16 August 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 15 October that same year. The ship was sold to Bosey, Philippines, on 5 December 1947. LST-947 earned one battle star for World War II service.

LST-948

LST - 948 was redesignated ARI-16 and named Myrmidon (q.v.) on 14 August 1944.

LST - 949

LST - 949 was laid down on 29 August 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 30 September 1944; and commissioned on 23 October 1944, Lt. Thomas J. Twohig, USNR, in command. During World War II, LST-949 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto from April through June 1945. On 15 September 1945, she was redesignated LSTH-949 and performed occupation duty in the Far East until mid-April 1946. The ship returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 18 July 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 25 September that same year. On 30 June 1948, she was sold to the Humble Oil & Refining Co., of Houston, Tex., for operation. LST-949 earned one battle star for World War II service.

LST - 950

LST - 950 was laid down on 1 September 1944 at Hingham, Mass., by the Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Inc.; launched on 4 October 1944; sponsored by Mrs. Recca; and commissioned on 27 October 1944. During World War 11, LST-950 was assigned to the Asiatic-Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto from April through June 1945. On 15 September 1945, she was redesignated LSTH- 950 and performed occupation duty in the Far East until early November 1945. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 23 September 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 10 June 1947. On 8 March 1948, the ship was sold to the Ships Power & Equipment Corp., of Barber, N.J., for scrapping. LST-950 earned one battle star for World War II service.


Pre–Modern Period Edit

Vietnam War Edit

On 19 July 1946, Acting President of Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) Huỳnh Thúc Kháng signed into law a decree establishing the modern Vietnamese navy. Then, on 10 September of that year, General Võ Nguyên Giáp started to build a flotilla as the core of the new navy. On 8 March 1949, Vietnam established the Department of Naval Research under the General Staff. This department has performed both research and training to prepare for combat missions.

Following the Geneva Conference in 1954, the DRV went about creating its own naval forces. On 7 May 1955 the Vietnam People's Navy was created with the establishment of the General Directorate of Coastal Defence, it formed the basis for the Navy Operational Command (based on the Vietnamese Ministry of Defence decree No. 284/ND signed by General Võ Nguyên Giáp to established Naval Research Board, under the General Staff, on 8 March 1949). The primary mission of the Navy was to patrol the coastal areas and the inland waterways.

Throughout the Vietnam War the role played by the Vietnam People's Navy (or North Vietnamese Navy) was largely unknown to the public. However, on 2 August 1964, three North Vietnamese Swatow-class patrol boats attacked the destroyer USS Maddox in what became known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. The second attack, which the United States claimed to have occurred on 4 August, was dismissed by the North Vietnamese as a fabrication.

The North Vietnamese, however, had maintained their own version of the events which took place. According to official VPN accounts Maddox penetrated North Vietnamese waters on 31 July 1964, and provoked a battle with the North Vietnamese. In response to American provocation, three 123K-class torpedo boats from the 135th Torpedo Boat Battalion were dispatched to intercept the American destroyer. The resulting clash became known as the 'Battle of Thanh Hóa' in which North Vietnamese "torpedo boats succeeded in driving the Maddox out of Vietnam's territorial waters, shooting down a U.S. aircraft and damaging another".

Apart from patrolling territorial waters, the Navy also had the mission of transporting military supplies to support the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and the Vietcong during the Vietnam War. On 31 October 1961, a sea route version of the Ho Chi Minh trail was established by the Navy, with the 759th Transport Unit responsible for carrying military supplies and other goods for the Communist ground forces in South Vietnam. To avoid detection by the South Vietnamese and U.S navies, North Vietnamese transport ships were often disguised as fishing trawlers. On 16 February 1965, a 100-ton North Vietnamese trawler from the Transportation Group 125 was discovered at Vung Ro Bay. This led to the creation of Operation Market Time by the US Navy to intercept disguised enemy ships.

On 19 April 1972, the Navy and Vietnam People's Air Force (VPAF) participated in the Battle of Đồng Hới off the coast of North Vietnam]. During this battle it was believed that the U.S Navy destroyed a Soviet-made cruise missile for the first time. The destroyer USS Higbee was damaged after a VPAF MiG-17 dropped a 250 lb (110 kg) bomb, destroying a 5-inch (127 mm) aft gun mount.

In the years following the complete withdrawal of U.S and other allied forces, the North Vietnamese went back on the offensive. As part of the Ho Chi Minh Campaign, the Navy increased the transportation of military supplies, food and uniform to the Communist forces in the South. When the PAVN occupied the northern provinces of South Vietnam in 1975, captured Republic of Vietnam Navy (RVNN) vessels were pressed into service with the Navy. In April 1975, ex-RVNN vessels carried North Vietnamese troops to capture the Spratly Islands. Opening battle in the island Southwest Cay (Vietnamese: Song Tử tây) on 4 April 1975, amphibious raid by sea of the Naval Marine corps number 1 (precursor of the 126th Brigade Naval Marine corps) and three vessels of the 125 corps coordinated with the commandos of the 5th Military Region, after 30 minutes, the Navy controlled the main battle area, facilitating the capture of the other islands. [1] The Navy gained control of Sand Cay island (26 April), Namyit Island (27 April), Sin Cowe Island (28 April) and Spratly Island (29 April). [2] The Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) had captured the Paracel Islands from the South Vietnamese in January 1974. These islands are also claimed by Vietnam, however they have no current presence there.

Prior to 1975, the Navy operated fewer than forty patrol boats along with the coastal junk force. With the collapse of South Vietnam on 30 April 1975, the Navy was expanded with ships from the defunct RVNN. Captured vessels included two patrol frigates, over one hundred patrol craft, and about fifty amphibious warfare ships.

In the late 1970s the naval infantry (or marines) was formed to be stationed on the areas claimed by the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in the Spratly Islands. The naval infantry is equipped with PT-76 light tanks, BTR-60 personnel carriers and naval infantrymen are armed with AK-74 rifle, AKM-47 assault rifles, Makarov PM pistol (Officers), and PKM machinegun infantry weapons, and more.

In March 1988, the Navy fought against the PLAN at Johnson Reef, causing the losses to the Vietnamese of several transport ships and up to 64 deaths. The battle was won by the PLAN who outgunned and outnumbered them, using a fleet of frigates against Vietnamese lightly armed transport ships. This prompted the Navy to modernise its weapons and its overall naval capabilities.


Locating the Maya

The Maya civilization was one of the most dominant Indigenous societies of Mesoamerica (a term used to describe Mexico and Central America before the 16th century Spanish conquest). Unlike other scattered Indigenous populations of Mesoamerica, the Maya were centered in one geographical block covering all of the Yucatan Peninsula and modern-day Guatemala Belize and parts of the Mexican states of Tabasco and Chiapasਊnd the western part of Honduras and El Salvador. This concentration showed that the Maya remained relatively secure from invasion by other Mesoamerican peoples.

Did you know? Among the earliest Maya a single language existed, but by the Preclassic Period a great linguistic diversity developed among the various Maya peoples. In modern-day Mexico and Central America, around 5 million people speak some 70 Maya languages most of them are bilingual in Spanish.

Within that expanse, the Maya lived in three separate sub-areas with distinct environmental and cultural differences: the northern Maya lowlands on the Yucatan Peninsula the southern lowlands in the Peten district of northern Guatemala and adjacent portions of Mexico, Belize and western Honduras and the southern Maya highlands, in the mountainous region of southern Guatemala. Most famously, the Maya of the southern lowland region reached their peak during the Classic Period of Maya civilization (A.D. 250 to 900), and built the great stone cities and monuments that have fascinated explorers and scholars of the region.


History : 1000 – 1 BC

1000 BC Iron Age begins. David is King of Israel.

990 BC David conquers Jerusalem.

970 BC Solomon is King of Israel.

950 BC Solomon builds the Temple.

930 BC King Solomon dies – Hebrew kingdom divided in Israel and Judah.

900 BC Homer writes Iliad and Odyssey perhaps at around this time.

810 BC Phoenicians establish Carthage. Homer composes Iliad and Odyssey around this time.

800 BC Time of the prophets Amos, Hosea and Isaiah. Traders who visited the mysterious far East empires of Cathay and T’chin speak of carriages which moved with the aid of fire (instead of horses).

776 BC First Olympiad in Greece.

753 BC Rome founded by Romulus.

721 BC Sargon, king of Assyria, takes Samaria and moves large numbers of Israelites to Media and Mesopotamia: the northern kingdom of Israel never revives.

691 BC The aqueduct introduced to bring water from distant sources to a large urban population. One of the first known aqueducts is ordered by the Assyrian King Sennacherib for Nineveh – it is about 90 km (50 miles) long.

660 BC Byzantium founded by Greeks.

621 BC Draco writes the first code of law for Athens and Greece. The penalty for many offenses were so severe that the word “draconian” comes from his name. (Citizens adored Draco and upon entering an auditorium one day to attend a reception in his honor, they showered him with hats and cloaks as was their custom. By the time they dug him out from under the clothing, he was smothered to death.)

606 BC Nabopolassar of Babylon and Cyaxares of Media destroy Nineveh end of Assyrian Empire.

604 BC Nebuchadnezzar rules Babylon.

598 BC Nebuchadnezzar takes Jerusalem.

586 BC Nebuchadnezzar destroys Jerusalem.

585 BC Aesop’s fables thought to be written about this time. (They include “The Hare and the Tortoise” and “The Fox and the Grapes.” Aesop’s moral lessons usually are summarized in one-sentence parables at the end of his fables, such as “don’t count your chickens before they hatch.”) Very little is known about the author some scholars believe Aesop was a slave, some believe he was legendary.

563 BC Buddha (Siddhārtha Gautama) born in India.

551 BC Confucius born in China.

550 BC Cyrus conquers Media and founds Persian Empire.

538 BC Cyrus conquers Babylon.

536 BC The Book of Punishments written in in China. Punishment for offenses include tattooing as a way to mark criminals, cutting off of the nose, castration, feet amputation and death.

535 BC The first Roman calendar introduced: it had 10 months, with 304 days in a year that began in March.

532 BC? Pythagoras of Crotona describes the relations between sides of right-angled triangle, and tone vibrations.

525 BC Tragedy and comedy theater performed. Celebratory songs and dances held in honor of Dionysus, the Greek god of wine and merrymaking, evolved into the earliest plays.

515 BC Second Temple built in Jerusalem.

500 BC End of monarchy in Rome, Republic founded. Completion of original Hebrew manuscripts which make up the 39 Books of the Old Testament. Thales (624 BC?-548 BC?) of Miletus calculates the geometry of the circle. (He also discovered electricity.)

490 BC Greeks defeat Persians at Battle of Marathon

486 BC Spurius Cassius of Rome passes First Agrarian Law (land reform).

483 BC Buddha dies.

471 BC Lex Publilia passed at Rome tribunes to be chosen by Comitia Tributa (popular assembly).

470 BC Socrates born near Athens. (He introduced the great tradition of Western philosophy. He was executed in 399 BC)

458 BC Ezra leads Jews from Babylon to Jerusalem.

450 BC The Twelve Tables ordered to be written by 10 Romans to establish the legal system of the Rome. Written on bronze and wood and tablets, the laws protected the lower class (plebes) from legal abuse by the ruling class (patricians) judges alone did not have the right the interpret the law the organization of public prosecution was promoted injured parties were allowed compensation by guilty parties. The Twelve Tables are considered the foundation of all modern law. (The tablets were destroyed by invading Gauls in 390.)

445 BC Nehemiah begins rebuilding of walls of Jerusalem.

440 BC Greek philosopher Leucippus and his student Democritus puts forward the notion that all matter consists of fundamental particles called atoms they taught that everything is composed of infinitely tiny indivisible particles called atoms. (The word atom comes from the Greek word meaning”indivisible.”)

438 BC Construction of the Parthenon.

400 BC – 300 BC The Pentateuch, the first five books of the Old Testament evolve. Hippocrates of Cos (430 BC?-377 BC?), the father of medicine, records medical cases. Eudoxus of Cnidus (388 BC?-355 BC) theorize planetary motions.

399 BC – Socrates is required to drink hemlock to end his life after being found guilty of corrupting the youth of Athens.

350 BC Aristotle writes Meteorologica, the first book on weather.

347 BC – 322 BC Aristotle identifies and classifies living forms. Plato establishes a philosophy academy.

336 BC Alexander the Great becomes King of Macedon and supreme general of Greeks.

330 BC Darius II dies – end of Persian empire.

325 BC Theophrastus, philosopher and student of Aristotle, takes over leadership of Aristotle’s school, the Lyceum. His writing include Inquiry into Plants and Growth of Plants (The works survived. Theophrastus is considered the founder of botany.)

300 BC Great Wall of China constructed in parts. Euclid, a Greek from Alexandria, writes Elements, introducing geometry (which means “land measurement”).

264 BC First Roman gladiatorial games.

240 BC Livius Andronicus is the first Roman poet.

221 BC China unites when the king of Ch’in, Ying Zheng, defeat the kings of other 6 kingdoms – Zheng becomes Qin Shi Huang, first emperor of a unified China.

214 BC Great Wall of China being made continuous by Emperor Shih Huang Ti.

212 BC? Archimedes explains the area of circle, principles of lever, the screw, and buoyancy.

200 BC Completion of the Septuagint Greek Manuscripts which contain The 39 Old Testament Books AND 14 Apocrypha Books. The first documented food fight takes place between Greek Mathematician Archimedes, who invented the catapult, and Egyptian King Ptolemy III. (At a dinner the king insisted that he found the geometry and physics of Archimedes’s design lacking in principle. Archimedes, so the story goes, says he’ll demonstrate the shortest distance between two points and starts pelting the king with olives. Ptolemy’s guards respond with fresh fruit, forcing Archimedes to surrender.)

194 BC? Eratosthenes determines the size of Earth and put forward theories of the climate.

183 BC Hannibal commits suicide rather than be captured by the Romans.

166 BC Maccabaean rebellion against Seleucid rule begins in Judah.

167 BC Antiochus IV dedicates the temple in Jerusalem as a shrine to Zeus.

150 BC Chinese make paper from macerated hemp fibers, plant bark, molded over old fishnets.

141 BC Wu of Han becomes emperor of China.

120 BC? Hipparchus of Rhodes (161 BC?-122 BC?) explains the pattern of the cosmos in latitude and longitude and makes triangular measurement of celestial navigation.

100 BC The trip hammer and the use of paper developed in China.

77 BC The Book of Esther, the last book of the Old Testament, is translated into Greek.

74 BC Xuan of Han becomes emperor of China at age 17.

63 BC The Romans take control of Judah, which they call Judea.

55 BC The Romans invade Britain.

51 BC Rule of Cleopatra in Egypt (until 30 BC). [There were seven Cleopatras in history, one became legendary.]

50 BC Julius Caesar crosses Rubicon to battle Pompey. Heron of Greece invented steam power in 50 BC but the leaders of the day thought that it would cause unemployment which may lead to unrest and the invention, well, ran out of steam.

48 BC Yuan of Han becomes emperor of China. The library of Alexandria destroyed by fire during a battle between Julius Caesar and Ptolemy XIII.

45 BC Rome bans all vehicles from within the city – and in other cities vehicles, including horses, were allowed only at night – because of traffic jams. The Julian calendar introduced.

44 BC Julius Caesar assassinated.

37 BC Herod appointed as king of Judea. Marc Antony marries Cleopatra.

33 BC Cheng of Han becomes emperor of China – he is known as a womanizer but did not leave an heir, dying in 7 BC of an aphrodisiac overdose.

30 BC Suicide of Antony and Cleopatra. Horace of Rome completes his Book of Epodes.

20 BC King Herod Agrippa begins reconstruction of the Great Temple in Jerusalem.

19 BC Roman poet Virgil completes the Aeneid.

7 BC Ai of Han is made emperor of China.

6 BC Probable year that Jesus Christ was born, perhaps in March.

4 BC The earliest known reference to the Scots was made by the Greek Pretanoi, who refers to their practice of painting faces or tattooing associated with the bluish dye known as woad.

1 BC Nine-year-old Ping of Han is made emperor of China – he is poisoned six years later. The revised Julian calendar introduced (on March 1).

Time – 1001 BC | 1000 – 1 BC
(The year 0 was not recorded)


Israel and Judah (900-720 BC)

After Solomon‘s death, representatives of the northern tribes demanded the implementation of reforms, which Rehoboam promised them. He was Solomon’s son. Since Rehoboam did not fulfill his promise, ten of northern tribes refused to recognize him as the ruler. North kept the name Israel and proclaimed Jeroboam, the former leader of the rebellion against Solomon, to be the king. Only tribes Judea and Benjamin remained faithful to him. After the separation, the Egyptian ruler, Shoshenq I, tried to restore the Egyptian authorities in the southern Canaan (Palestine), which resulted in great destruction on the territory of both kingdoms. Although power was not restored, Israel and Judah have weakened.

The capital of Judea has continued to be Jerusalem, and the Temple of Solomon remained the center of worshiping. On the other hand, Jeroboam (930-910 BC) decided to build a new capital, as well as a religious center. The Old Testament says that in Bethel and Dan he built shrines dedicated to Yahweh.

JUDEA: During the next period, the authorities in Judea were stable, and on the throne took turns descendants of David‘s bloodline. Judah was territorially smaller, less populated, poorer, and therefore less attractive to invaders.

King of Moab Stele recording his victories against Israel.

ISRAEL: The situation in Israel was not stable. There have been several changes of dynasty. Besides that, the wealth of Israel and the closeness of Phoenician cities and Damascus made him attractive to Syrians and Assyrians. With the arrival of Omri (885-874 BC) on the throne, Israel will reach its peak. He was one of the military commanders who managed to establish unity and stability also, he terminated the series of upheavals and uprisings, which shook Israel since the death of Jeroboam. He built a new capital, Samaria, in the center of Israel. He regained control over the regions, which before he came to the throne took the ruler of Damascus. He also restored the cities Dan and Hazor, which were destroyed by the Armenians.

In order to strengthen its position in relation to the ruler of Damascus, he made alliances with Ithobaal, the ruler of Tyre. He also ended the conflict with Judah, which for a long time exhausted both kingdoms, and he made an alliance with Judea’s ruler. In these conflicts, the dominant role had Israel. The alliance has been strengthened with the marriage between Omri’s daughter and Judah’s king Jehoshaphat son.

Ahab (873-851 BC) succeeded Omri. He continued the policy of his father and made Israel one of the strongest countries in the region. His army took part in the coalition who clashed with Shalmaneser III in 853 BC, in the battle of Qarqar. In addition, during his rule the economy of Israel strengthened as well.

The Old Testament texts show Ahab as a very negative person, and he is portrayed as someone who behaves in a despotic way. His main sin was that he allowed his wife to built temples and shrines to foreign deity in Israel. Citizens could not accept that, which resulted in the desecration of temples and shrines. Queen Jezebel remained influential during the reign of her sons Ahaziah (852-851 BC) and Joram (851 – 841 BC). Ahaba’s heirs were unable to cope with the problems that have multiplied. First Moab land rebelled, and the country gained independence. When 845 BC, on the throne of Damascus came Hazael, it sparked an old enmity between these two rivals. In 842/1 BC Aramaic army was moving to the south, and clashed with the Israelites and their allies Judeans. All these conflicts have brought defeat to Israel. On Hazael’s Stele of victory, it was noted that the king of Damascus killed the kings of Israel and Judah. On the throne was to Israel came Jehu (841-813 BC), one of the military commanders. He ordered the massacre of all the surviving descendants of the Omri royal family dynasty, as well as some members of the Judah royal family. When news of Jehu’s usurpation, Joram’s and Ahaziah’s death came to Jerusalem, Ahaziah’s mother, Queen Athaliah, the only surviving descendant of Omri bloodline, decided to take control of Judea. Athaliah (841-835 BC) was the only monarch of Judah, who was not a descendant of David.

Her reign ended violently, and power was transferred to Jehoahaz, the only surviving son of her husband, which meant the return of the old dynasty to the throne of Judea. During the last decades of the IX century, the Armenians had the power over Judah and Israel. Then, during the long reign of Jeroboam II (782-747 BC) Israel has regained the area east of the Jordan which Hazael took, and spread its authority on the territory of Syria. In Judah, the reign of Uzziah (767-739 BC) also made stable conditions. The decades that followed will bring many changes in the north and the south.

The fall of Samaria, Israel’s capital, took place in 721 BC. Israel has become the province of Assyria, and Judah has preserved its independence, but it had to pay to the Assyrians huge tax.


Economy, society, and culture in the Middle Ages (c. 900–1300)

The breakdown of royal authority in the 10th century coincided with the beginning of a long era of population growth and economic expansion. Population had fallen sharply after the end of the Roman Empire, not only because of the period’s political disruptions but because of a series of epidemics and other disasters. Farming methods in the Merovingian and Carolingian periods were primitive and crop yields too low to permit any recovery. As early as 800 and more dramatically after 950, improved climatic conditions, the disappearance of deadly diseases, and the development of improved agricultural techniques set the stage for the development of a new, more prosperous civilization. All indicators suggest growth—e.g., expansion of old towns, founding of new villages, the rising price of land—but no exact measurements are possible. A register of hearths, tallied for tax purposes, dating from 1328 has been estimated variously to point to a total population of 15 million to 22 million the total, not much below the figure for the end of Louis XIV’s reign in 1715, was probably slightly reduced after a crest toward the end of the 13th century. By the 1280s large portions of France had enjoyed many years of relative security and prosperity, even though private warfare had not disappeared, despite royal prohibitions. Brigandage seems actually to have worsened in the south about 1200. The ravages and massacres of the Albigensian Crusade, the 13th-century war against the “Good Men,” or Cathar heretics, made Languedoc an insecure southern frontier for still another generation. Though it eventually stamped out this heresy, the harsh response of the Inquisition, beginning in the 1230s, apparently did not seriously disrupt urban or rural prosperity.

The broad tendencies of social change were in keeping with political and institutional progress. The conjugal family gained in importance: Roman and especially canon law favoured its authority over the wider solidarities of clan or kin ( extended family) rulers made the hearth a basis of fiscal responsibility. The growing population remained overwhelmingly agrarian, but changes in farming practices made their efforts more efficient. The clearing of new lands and more flexible schemes of crop rotation and improved technology, such as better yokes and horse collars that allowed draft animals to pull plows that could effectively till the heavy soils of northern France, led to better harvests. The spread of water-powered mills to grind grain allowed an improvement in diet, as bread replaced gruel. The diet was further improved by the greater cultivation of private gardens, which produced protein-rich legumes and green leafy vegetables. The social condition of the peasantry also changed. Outright slavery, common in earlier periods, tended to disappear. Some peasants retained their independence, as in the Massif Central and the Pyrenees, although they were not necessarily better off than serfs in more prosperous regions. Most peasants were organized in subjection to lords—bishops, abbots, counts, barons, or knights—whose estates assumed diverse forms. In northern France lords typically reserved the proceeds of a domain worked by tenants, who had their own parcels of land to live on. Lords were not simply landowners, however. They were also able to extract a variety of dues and labour services from their tenants, to compel them to use the lord’s mill, oven, and winepress, and to bring their legal disputes to the lord’s court. The income from these dues and services was often more important to local lords than the rents they collected.


The Surprisingly Sufficient Viking Diet

Today, the Vikings are celebrated as a proud, warlike folk, well known for their mythology and elaborate funerals. The Viking diet, however, is a mystery to most people. What did these warriors eat to survive in such a forbidding landscape? As it turns out, their food was healthy, fresh, and even a poor Viking ate much better than an English peasant during the Middle Ages. That’s not to say that the Viking diet didn’t have inadequacies, but on the whole, the Viking diet was a model of efficiency and innovation in a time when cooks had to make the most out of some very limited ingredients.

A major benefit of the Viking diet was the fact that every level of society, from kings to common sailors, ate meat every day.  Often this would have been pork, as hogs were easy to raise and quick to mature, but Vikings also ate beef, mutton and goats. Horses were also raised for food, a practice that led to later clashes with Christian leaders, as horsemeat was a forbidden ਏood under church doctrine. Vikings were avid hunters, and would capture reindeer, elk and even bear to bring back to the hearth fires. And of course, since Vikings spent so much time on the water, fish formed a major part of their diet. Herrings were abundant, and prepared in a plethora of ways: dried, salted, smoked, pickled and even preserved in whey.

While we might tend to think of Vikings standing over huge roasting pits with joints of mutton dripping onto hot coals, evidence suggests roasting and frying weren’t the favored cooking methods of the time. In fact, Vikings most often boiled their meats. Indeed, the centerpiece of the day’s meals was a boiled meat stew, called skause. As meats and vegetables were taken out of the pot, new ones were added, and the broth became concentrated over days of cooking.  Skause was eaten with bread baked with all sorts of grains, beans and even tree bark𠄻irch bark can be dried and ground and is actually very nutritious. Vikings used old bread dough to make sourdough loaves, and would also use soured milk and buttermilk to enrich their breads.


Historical Sources for Medieval Norman Families

Best-researched and preferred online database for medieval family relations: The Foundation for Medieval Genealogy Medieval Lands Database by Charles Cawley. Meticulously researched, with supporting evidence for all claims from primary sources, which are extensively quoted (usually in Latin). Please use this database as the most definitive guide for family relationships for the Anglo-Norman families, and please insert relevant information from this database into all Master Profiles as you are developing the "About Me"" sections.

You are encouraged to transcribe and/or share relevant materials from scholarly medieval history books and articles (always providing full source citations). Be aware that many of these are now accessible online. Please see bibliographies below for ideas and for your reading pleasure if you'd like to learn more about this period in history. (Please add to it if you know of books and articles about the Normans.)


Map of England and Wales AD 900-950

By the dawn of the tenth century the period of invasion and conquest by the Vikings, mostly originating from Denmark or Viking Dublin, had ended.

The Viking conquest of the kingdom of Northumbria had resulted in the fragmentation of this territory north of the Humber. By 875 the invaders had grabbed former Deira, Elmet, and Dunoting, plus areas of what had been South Rheged. Former Bernicia regained its independence by the early tenth century as an English sub-kingdom, while Cumbria (which had been part of Northumbria since the fall of North Rheged) fell into the hands of Strathclyde around the turn of the century.

While the history of Lancashire at this point is extremely unclear, the Danelaw was retaken by Wessex in 918, which had also controlled Mercia since 879, but the Vikings managed to hold onto Ynys Manau (the Isle of Man) until 1265.

Wales was taking great steps towards the consolidation of its many principalities. All of them, along with Dumnonia and the Scots and Picts, were tributary to the English kings at this time.

The Scandinavian kingdom of York itself finally fell to the English in 954, creating a fully unified English kingdom.

Although not strictly relevant here, the Scottish crown captured Dunbar circa 975, bringing the island one step closer to its modern borders

To select a territory for further information, click anywhere within its borders.

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Later Cymru (Wales) AD 800-1000

England and Wales AD 900-950

Original text and map copyright © P L Kessler and the History Files. An original feature for the History Files. Go back or return home.


How Vikings treated slaves

Whatever motivated the Vikings to start taking slaves, evidence suggests they were often brutal with those who had the misfortune to be captured. In one study, research Anna Kjellström of Stockholm University examined the skeletal remains of presumed Viking-era slaves found in graves in Norway, Sweden and Denmark, and found that they showed signs of abuse and decapitation.

In some cases, the slaves were buried alongside their masters, suggesting they may have ended up as human sacrifices, and included with grave goods to accompany powerful Vikings into the afterlife.

While written sources provide strong evidence of slavery in the Viking world, the slaves themselves—why they were taken, how they were transported, where and how they lived—left little trace on the archaeological record.

Raffield stresses the need to more fully excavate Viking sites where slaves are believed to have lived. Ultimately, there may be limits to how much we’ll ever know about forced labor in the Viking Age, beyond the evidence gleaned from written sources and archaeological digs.

“The thing about studying slavery and captivity is that these groups are often described in the archaeological literature as invisible, or unseen,” Raffield cautions. “Their movements are curtailed, they&aposre denied of possessions, they&aposre not always accorded formal habitation—places to sleep, places to live. They&aposre really hard to identify in the archaeological record.” 


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