Hayasa-Azzi Timeline

Hayasa-Azzi Timeline


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.


Before Tudhaliya III (1500-1340s BC)

Hittite inscriptions deciphered in the 1920s by the Swiss scholar Emil Forrer testify to the existence of a mountain country, the Hayasa and/or the Azzi, lying around Lake Van. Several prominent authorities agree in placing Azzi to the north of Ishuwa. Others see Hayasa and Azzi as identical.

Records of the time between Telipinu and Tudhaliya III are sketchy. The Hittites seem to have abandoned their capital at Hattusa and moved to Sapinuwa under one of the earlier Tudhaliya kings. In the early 14th century BC, Sapinuwa was burned as well. Hattusili III records at this time that the Azzi had "made Samuha its frontier." It should be borne in mind that people who view themselves as great civilizations are not always too particular about which group of so-called "Barbarians" they are fighting. Also at times multiple atrocities are blamed on one group as a rallying cry for a current war.


10 Greatest Discoveries That Changed The World

The greatest discoveries have the potential to advance technology or society in monumental ways. Without the discoveries listed here the world we live in would be a completely different place. This is a list of the 10 Greatest discoveries that changed the world.

Rosetta Stone

The Rosetta stone is a rock discovered by Napoleon’s forces while travelling through Egypt which held the secret to understanding Egyptian hieroglyphs. It was discovered in 1799 by Pierre Francois Bouchard, during the Napoleonic expedition to Egypt. Two years later the French lost to the British in Egypt and it was transported to London. It took years to use to the stone to fully understand Egyptian hieroglyphs. The stone is written in two different languages, Egyptian and Greek, this is what made it possible to decipher Egyptian. Ownership of the Rosetta stone has been widely disputed with many claiming it should be returned to Egypt.

It’s impossible to say exactly when humans discovered the ability to control fire, but what we do know is that it was one of humanities greatest discoveries and opened the door to countless new opportunities. Fire allowed us to cook food, scare away deadly predators, and dangerous bugs, and even explore cold dark places which would normally be too dangerous to enter. Maybe the biggest advantage we gained from fire was the ability to work through the night. Now we had a tool that served as night vision, a radiator and even a weapon, meaning we no longer had to fear the long dark nights. The nutrients we gained from cooked foods allowed us to become vastly more intelligence and our brains expanded.

The wheel was the greatest discovery of the neolithic period. It allowed humans to transport heavy loads across far distances with ease. Wheels transformed our world beyond recognition. In modern times you see them everywhere cars, planes, even ships. Wheels were invented many thousands of years ago, but its possible to pin down exactly. The first evidence of wheeled vehicles appears in the second half of the 4 th millennium BC. Like many of the world’s greatest discoveries people didn’t realise the significance of the wheel at first, eventually we began realise it’s potential. Settlements started flattening the ground so wheeled vehicles could travel more easily, we used them to transport goods, people, and weapons.

Peace Treaties

A peace treaty is an agreement between two parties to put an end to a state of war, without violence. This is the most common way to end a war without violence or bloodshed. It’s creation has saved countless lives, and put an end to many wars which might have been devastating if never stopped. The creation of the peace treaty means there is always a peaceful way out of a war once it starts. The earliest recorded peace treaty was between the Hittite Empire and the Hayasa-Azzi confederation, in 1350 BC.

Logical Thought

Nothing was more essential than the ability to think logically, in order to make sound decisions. Logic is how we worked out how to survive, and without it we would never have made any of the other discoveries on this list. Civilisations have been made and destroyed because of good or bad logic. The earliest forms of logic would have been as simple as observing other animals, and avoiding what kills them. Now we use logic to attempt to work out the complex world we live in, which becomes more difficult with each passing day.

Metalworking

Early civilisations likely used gold before any other metal because it’s only metal that occurs naturally in it’s pure form. People likely just found nuggets of gold in the ground. Other metals can be found from meteors that hit the ground but these are rare. Eventually a way to extract other metals was discovered which changed everything. Ancient mines have been discovered all over the world. Metal was used to create adornments, tools, and weapons. It’s easily one of the greatest discoveries in military history. Eventually we found ways of combining metals to make stronger ones. We found that by combining copper and tin we could make bronze, and eventually we worked our way up to steel. Without metalworking we wouldn’t have so many of the machines that make the world what it is today.

In the 1600’s Isaac Newton discovered gravity. Gravity is the force that brings all things with mass toward one another. Energy and mass are equivalent so all forms of energy including light cause gravitation and are influenced by gravitation. The gravitational attraction of gaseous matter present in the universe caused it to begin coalescing and forming stars, and the stars eventually formed galaxies. Isaac Newton is considered to be one of the greatest scientists in history because of his many great contributions to science.

The Printing Press

The printing press was invented by Johannes Gutenberg in the 1400’s. Gutenberg created a complete printing system, he managed to create the perfect printing process through all of it’s stages. He took existing technology and adapted it to fit his purpose. His printing press became incredibly popular over the next 20 years, it spread to over 200 cities all across Europe. Printing presses were being used more and more, and by 1500, over 20 million volumes had been printed. Possibly 200 million volumes had been produced before the end of the century. The printing press introduced us to the era of mass communication. Information could be spread all over the world, and people used this to spread ideas, and information that normally the average person would have no access to. This had monumental changes on society, and helped to create the middle class.

Agriculture

agriculture is the practice of cultivating animals, and plants in order to gain food and sustenance. This is one of the greatest discoveries of early human history. Before agriculture humans were nomads who would keep moving from place to place. Staying in one place was an impossibility as food would eventually run out. That’s why agriculture was so revolutionary for us. It meant that we could stay in one place for long periods of time without starving. Agriculture was discovered in the neolithic age. People had been domesticating animals in certain parts of the globe for a long time, but agriculture was only developed in the neolithic age.

The Earth Is Round

People first toyed with the idea of a round earth around the 6 th century BC, although it wasn’t fully accepted until the middle ages. In the past people used to believe that the earth was flat, but that’s since been disproved. The discovery that the earth was round was proved by the Magellan-Elcano expedition. The expedition started in Seville, crossed the Atlantic Ocean, and eventually rounded the tip of South America, continued across the Pacific discovering many islands along the way. One of the islands they discovered was the Philippines, unfortunately Magellan died here, and Elcano took over the voyage. Elcano sailed across the Indian Ocean, round the Cape of Good Hope, north along the Atlantic Ocean, and arrived back in Spain in 1522. They expedition took three years. This discovery eventually led to trade between civilisations all across the world.


List of Syro-Hittite states

The Syro–Hittite states may be divided into two groups: a northern group where Hittite rulers remained in power, and a southern group where Aramaeans came to rule from about 1000 BC. These states were highly decentralised structures some appear to have been only loose confederations of sub-kingdoms. ⎖] ⎗]

The northern group includes:

    . It may have included a group of city states called the Tyanitis (Tuwana, Tunna, Hupisna, Shinukhtu, Ishtunda) (with Melid) (with a stronghold at modern Karatepe)

The southern group includes:

    (whose capital was probably Tell Tayinat) ⎘]⎙] (with Sam'al) (with the city of Til Barsip) (with Guzana) (also Pattina or Unqi) (with the city of Kinalua, maybe modern Tell Tayinat⎚] ) , a religious center (with the cities of Arpad, Nampigi, and (later on) Aleppo) (the capital city of which was at Hatarikka)

亚美尼亚种族灭绝

亚美尼亚种族灭绝(英语: Armenian Genocide ;亚美尼亚语: Հայոց Ցեղասպանութիւն ;土耳其语: Ermeni Soykırımı ),指鄂圖曼土耳其政府於1915年至1917年间,对其辖境内亚美尼亚人进行的种族屠杀。其受害者数量达到150万之众。土耳其政府至今拒绝承认这是一次官方发起的有预谋的屠杀行为,但亞美尼亞、俄罗斯和其他多数西方国家皆认为这是一件可以和猶太人大屠殺相提并论的由一国政府蓄意进行的种族灭绝行为,一些土耳其学者(如奥尔汗·帕穆克等)也持有相同观点。目前共有阿根廷、比利时、加拿大、德国、法国、希腊、意大利、黎巴嫩、荷兰、俄罗斯、瑞典、美國等二十多个国家官方承认这是一场种族屠杀。欧洲议会也承认“亚美尼亚大屠杀”事件,认为这宗屠杀为“违反人性的罪行”。联合国防止歧視和保護少數小組委員會也将事件定性为“种族灭绝”。 [8]

亚美尼亚人在奧斯曼統治下的生活 编辑

歐洲三大強國英國、法國及俄國(下稱「列強」)對奧斯曼帝國處理國內的基督徒少數族裔有異議,向奧斯曼政府施壓日增,要求它的所有公民都享有同等權利,但奧斯曼政府未做出多少有效行動。到了1870年代末,希臘及幾個巴爾幹國家已經不能忍受,在1877年俄羅斯帝國出兵干涉後,經1878年柏林會議先後擺脫了奧斯曼的統治,即塞爾維亞、黑山、保加利亞和羅馬尼亞。亞美尼亞人在這段時間沒有積極爭取獨立,使他們得到了「忠心米利特」(土耳其語: millet-i sadıka )的稱呼。 [10]

奧斯曼政府1860-1880年的改革 编辑

從1860年代中期至1870年代初,亞美尼亞人開始要求奧斯曼政府改善他們的待遇。亞美尼亞人群體議會(Armenian Communal Council)從安那托利亞東部的農民收集簽名後,向奧斯曼政府請願,要求糾正被那些農民抱怨的事:库尔德人及切尔克斯人在亞美尼亞人市鎮搶掠和殺人;不依法收稅;政府官員的犯罪行為;拒絕在審訊時接納基督徒作為證人。 [11] 奧斯曼政府聽取了這些訴求,承諾會懲罰那些要對事件負責的人。 [11]

1875年,波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那、保加利亚及塞尔维亚的基督徒起事被鎮壓後,列強援引1856年的《巴黎條約》,宣稱該條約容許它們介入以保護奧斯曼帝國的基督徒少數族裔。 [12] 面對日增的壓力,政府宣佈實行君主立宪制及與列強談判。與此同時,亞美尼亞人的君士坦丁堡牧首拿施斯二世(Nerses II)向列強提出亞美尼亞人的控訴,指他們遭受廣泛的「強奪土地……強迫婦女及兒童改變宗教信仰、縱火、強索保护费、强奸及謀殺」。 [13]

在1877年至1878年的俄土戰爭以俄羅斯兵臨鄂圖曼首都結束後,亞美尼亞人開始更傾向以俄國作為他們安全的保證人。拿施斯於俄國領導人與奧斯曼人在聖斯特凡諾談判期間,接觸了俄國人,說服他們在《聖斯特凡諾條約》加入第16條,規定佔據亞美尼亞省份的俄軍只會在奧斯曼完全落實改革後才會撤走。 [14] 英國不想俄國佔據大量奧斯曼領土,迫使俄國進行新談判,於1878年6月13日召開柏林會議。亞美尼亞人參與了談判,表明他們爭取的是自治,不是脫離奧斯曼帝國獨立。 [15] 他們取得部分成功,《柏林條約》第61條包括了上次第16條的同樣文句,但是刪去俄軍可留在那些省份的内容,取而代之是奧斯曼政府須定期把改革的進度知會列強。

1894年至1896年的哈米德大屠殺 编辑

1876年,新蘇丹阿卜杜勒-哈米德二世登位。從《柏林條約》簽訂後的改革期開始,哈米德二世試圖擱置上述改革,聲稱亞美尼亞人在那些省份未佔大多數,又稱亞美尼亞人報告受苛待的事大多是誇大或不實。1890年,哈米德二世創建了一支準軍事隊伍「哈米迪耶」(Hamidiye),由庫爾德族非正規人員組成,任務是「隨他們想怎樣地去處理亞美尼亞人」。 [16] :40 由於奧斯曼官員蓄意在亞美尼亞人聚居市鎮引發叛亂(通常因為稅收過重),例如1894年的「沙遜抵抗」(Sasun Resistance),這些部隊越來越多被用以壓制及屠殺亞美尼亞人。亞美尼亞人成功擊退這些部隊,於1895年请求列強關注這些越軌行為,而列強隨即譴責奧斯曼政府。 [17]

列強迫使哈米德二世於1895年10月簽署新的一連串改革,以抑制「哈米迪耶」的權力,但與《柏林條約》規定的改革一樣,從未得到落實。1895年10月1日,2000亞美尼亞人在君士坦丁堡集會請願,要求落實改革,遭奧斯曼警察武力驅散。 [16] :57–8 未幾,君士坦丁堡發生亞美尼亞人被屠殺事件,隨後席捲其他亞美尼亞人的聚居地如比特利斯、迪亚巴克尔、埃尔祖鲁姆、哈爾普特、錫瓦斯、特拉布宗及凡城。对遇害的亞美尼亞人數目有不同估計,但是歐洲人在稱為哈米德大屠殺的文件中把數字定於10至30萬人之間。 [18]

雖然哈米德二世没有直接下令進行上述屠殺,但被懷疑予以默許且沒有进行制止。 [19] 因歐洲人漠視屠殺而感到愤怒的亞美尼亞革命聯盟成員於1896年8月26日佔據歐洲人管理的奧斯曼銀行。該事件為亞美尼亞人在歐洲帶來更多的同情,被歐美新聞界讚揚,他們把哈米德二世描繪成「大殺手」及「血腥蘇丹」。 [16] :35,115 雖然列強誓言會採取行動及強制實施新的改革,但却因為政治及經濟利益的緣故而沒有实施。

1908年的青年土耳其黨革命 编辑

1908年7月24日,哈米德二世被軍官發動政變推翻,恢復君主立憲制,再次使亞美尼亞人重燃在帝國內享有平等權利的希望。政變者來自青年土耳其党,欲改革帝國施政并推行現代化以追赶歐洲。該党由世俗主义的自由立憲主義者以及民族主義者组成。前者比較支持民主,願意接納亞美尼亞人加入其阵营;而後者則對亞美尼亞人经常向歐洲人求助不满。 [16] :140–1 在1902年於巴黎舉行的一次青年土耳其党大會上,自由派领袖薩巴赫丁親王及艾哈邁德·里扎部份地說服民族主義者把「確保國內所有少數族裔享有某些權利」列入其政治目标。

1909年的阿達納大屠殺 编辑

該叛乱雖然主要針對新成立的青年土耳其黨政府,亞美尼亞人却被視為支持立宪而惨遭殺戮。 [20] 在許多記載中,到达现场的新政府軍隊不但沒有試圖制止暴行,反而加入搶掠阿达纳省的亞美尼亞人飛地的行列。 [21] 約15000至30000亞美尼亞人在「阿達納屠殺」中被杀害。 [22] [23]

勞動營 编辑

把部隊中的亞美尼亞士兵改编到無武裝的後勤部門是隨後的種族滅絕的重要一步。根據《The Memoirs of Naim Bey》所述,消滅勞動營中的亞美尼亞人是以「統一與進步委員會」名義進行的計劃的一部分,勞動營中的許多亞美尼亞士兵最终被當地的土耳其人團夥殺害。 [16] :178

1915年4月的凡城事件 编辑

1915年4月19日,凡城省長傑夫戴特·貝伊(Jevdet Bey)以徵兵為理由,要求凡城立即向他提供4000人。亞美尼亞人認為有诈,沒有依從。傑夫戴特在此之前已在附近村莊以搜查武器為由展開屠殺。 [25] 亞美尼亞人提議先交500人再加豁免金以豁免其他人以換取時間。于是傑夫戴特指控亞美尼亞人「叛亂」,并称将不惜任何代價予以「粉碎」。他宣稱:「如果叛亂分子敢開一槍,我就殺掉每個基督徒男人、女人以及(指向自己膝蓋)這麼高的小孩。」 [26]

拘捕亞美尼亞顯要人物 编辑

1915年4月24日晚,奧斯曼政府一夜之間逮捕了二百多位君士坦丁堡的亞美尼亞知識分子及社區領袖, [16] :211–2 很多人後來被殺害。

特西爾法 编辑

驅逐及滅絕過程 编辑

歷史學家Hans-Lukas Kieser指出,根據塔拉特帕夏的聲明, [35] 土耳其官員很清楚的意識到驅逐命令即是種族滅絕。 [36]

据信曾有25個大集中营存在,聽令於塔拉特的一位左右手Şükrü Kaya。 [41] 这些營多數位于現代土耳其、伊拉克及敘利亞三国的接壤附近,有些是臨時中轉營。 [41] 其它的,諸如Radjo、Katma及阿扎茲,據稱只是臨時作為亂葬崗之用,這些地方在1915年秋之后被空置。 [41] 有些作者也認為在Lale、Tefridje、Dipsi、Del-El以及艾因角的營是特地為那些只能再多活几天的人而建。 [41]

幾乎所有集中营,包括那些大集中营,都是露天的。在較小的營發生的集體屠杀不僅有直接殺害,也有集體燒死。Eitan Belkind是一位滲透入奧斯曼軍隊擔任軍官的Nili成員,被派往Camal Pasha的總部,宣稱曾目睹5000名亞美尼亞人被活活燒死。 [42] 奧斯曼軍隊的Hasan Maruf中尉描述有一條村的居民被集中到一起,然後被燒死。 [43] 奧斯曼第三軍團司令韋希布于1919年3月29日在特拉布宗連串審訊時,其主要起訴書內包含的12頁書面供詞(日期為1918年12月5日), [44] 称穆什附近也發生過一宗全村人被集體燒死的情况。

助纣为虐的特別組織 编辑

當時來自中立的美國、奧斯曼帝國的盟友德意志帝國和奥匈帝国的數百名目擊者記錄了众多政府支持的屠殺事件。許多外國官員以及教宗本篤十五世提議对亞美尼亞人提供帮助,但是都被宣稱忙于報復親俄叛亂的奧斯曼政府拒绝。 [48] :177 1915年5月24日,三國協約警告奧斯曼帝國「鑒於土耳其這些違反人道反文明的新罪行,協約國宣佈奧斯曼政府的全體人員及听命与其并参与屠殺的人要對其罪行负責」。 [49]

土耳其的軍事法庭 编辑

國際審訊 编辑

《穆德洛斯停戰協定》签署以後,在巴黎的初步和平會議於1919年1月成立「責任制裁委員會」,由美國國務卿罗伯特·蓝辛任主席。該委員會对《色佛尔条约》增加了數項條款,奥斯曼帝国代理政府、蘇丹穆罕默德六世及大維奇爾Damat Adil Ferit Pasha被召出席審訊。

塔拉特·帕夏遇刺 编辑

对在大屠殺中喪生的亞美尼亞人數众说不一,西方學者普遍認為有超過50萬亞美尼亞人在1914年至1918年間死亡。不同观点认为有30萬(現代土耳其认可的数字)至150萬人(現代亞美尼亞 [52] 、阿根廷 [53] 及其它國家的觀點)不等。《大英百科全书》參考了阿諾爾德·約瑟·湯因比的研究结果,即1915年至1916年「約60萬亞美尼亞人在被驅逐過程中死亡或被屠殺」。 [54] [55]

以色列耶路撒冷希伯來大學學者耶胡達·鮑爾(Yehuda Bauer)認為亞美尼亞種族大屠殺「最能夠與猶太人大屠殺相提並論」。 [56] 不過他同时指出兩者有不同之处,尤其是屠杀動機。

Bat Ye'or認為「对亞美尼亞人的種族滅絕是一場聖戰」。 [58] 她指聖戰及所謂的「齊米心態」(dhimmitude)部分构成了導致亞美尼亞種族大屠殺的「原則和價值觀」。 [59] 对此,曾目睹亞美尼亞人被迫害的Fà'iz el-Ghusein持不同观点,后者認為亞美尼亞人的苦難是統一與進步委員會所為,起自民族主義狂熱及对亞美尼亞人的嫉妒,而與伊斯蘭教信仰無關。

爭議 编辑

"Today we commemorate the anniversary of what has been called the first genocide of the 20th century, and we salute the memory of the Armenian victims of this crime against humanity" [71] .

2011年12月,法國國民議會通過將「否認亞美尼亞人種族滅絕」列為刑事罪行的法案,違反的人可被判監禁和罰款。 [72] 2012年1月,法案在法國參議院亦獲得通過, [73] 不過法國憲法委員會在2月以法案會侵害言論自由而判定它違反憲法。 [74]

2016年6月2日,德國聯邦議院以壓倒性多數通過決議,認定土耳其奧斯曼帝國在1915年對亞美尼亞人進行種族滅絕屠殺。 [75] [76] 德國對於一戰期間坐視當時的盟友鄂圖曼帝國進行血腥屠殺表達遺憾。土耳其對此極為不滿,召回駐德國大使又揚言報復。 [77] 德國總理默克爾告訴記者「爭議是民主的一部分。」德國和土耳其的關係可以承受「對一個特定問題有不同見解」。 [77]


Language

By Thomas V. Gamkrelidze and V. V. Ivanov Scientific American, March 1990, P.110 This inference is supported by what is known about the portion of the Indo-European community that remained after the Anatolian family had broken away. From that community came the languages that persisted into written history. The first to branch off was the Greek-Armenian-Indo-lranian language community. It must have begun to do so in the fourth millennium B.C. because by the middle of the third millennium B.C. the community was already dividing into two groups, namely, the Indo-lranian and the Greek-Armenian. Tablets in the Hattusas archives show that by the middle of the second millennium B.C. the Indo-lranian group had given rise to a language spoken in the Mitanni kingdom on the southeast frontier of Anatolia that was already different from ancient Indian (commonly called Sanskrit) and ancient Iranian. Cretan Mycenaean texts from the same eras as Mitanni, deciphered in the early 1950's by the British scholars Michael G. F. Ventris and John Chadwick, fumed out to be in a previously unknown dialect of Greek. All these languages had gone their separate ways from Armenian.


Contents

The phrase "ancient Near East" denotes the 19th-century distinction between Near East and Far East as global regions of interest to the British Empire. The distinction began during the Crimean War. The last major exclusive partition of the east between these two terms was current in diplomacy in the late 19th century, with the Hamidian Massacres of the Armenians and Assyrians by the Ottoman Empire in 1894–1896 and the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895. The two theatres were described by the statesmen and advisors of the British Empire as "the Near East" and "the Far East". Shortly after, they were to share the stage with Middle East, which came to prevail in the 20th century and continues in modern times.

As Near East had meant the lands of the Ottoman Empire at roughly its maximum extent, on the fall of that empire, the use of Near East in diplomacy was reduced significantly in favor of the Middle East. Meanwhile, the ancient Near East had become distinct. The Ottoman rule over the Near East ranged from Vienna (to the north) to the tip of the Arabian Peninsula (to the south), from Egypt (in the west) to the borders of Iraq (in the east). The 19th-century archaeologists added Iran to their definition, which was never under the Ottomans, but they excluded all of Europe and, generally, Egypt, which had parts in the empire.

Ancient Near East periodization is the attempt to categorize or divide time into discrete named blocks, or eras, of the Near East. The result is a descriptive abstraction that provides a useful handle on Near East periods of time with relatively stable characteristics.

Copper Age Chalcolithic
(4500–3300 BC)
Early Chalcolithic 4500–4000 BC Ubaid period in Mesopotamia
Late Chalcolithic 4000–3300 BC Ghassulian, Sumerian Uruk period in Mesopotamia, Gerzeh, Predynastic Egypt, Proto-Elamite
Bronze Age
(3300–1200 BC)
Early Bronze Age
(3300–2100 BC)
Early Bronze Age I 3300–3000 BC Protodynastic to Early Dynastic Period of Egypt, settlement of Phoenicians
Early Bronze Age II 3000–2700 BC Early Dynastic Period of Sumer
Early Bronze Age III 2700–2200 BC Old Kingdom of Egypt, Akkadian Empire, early Assyria, Old Elamite period, Sumero-Akkadian states
Early Bronze Age IV 2200–2100 BC First Intermediate Period of Egypt
Middle Bronze Age
(2100–1550 BC)
Middle Bronze Age I 2100–2000 BC Third Dynasty of Ur
Middle Bronze Age II A 2000–1750 BC Minoan civilization, early Babylonia, Egyptian Middle Kingdom
Middle Bronze Age II B 1750–1650 BC Second Intermediate Period of Egypt
Middle Bronze Age II C 1650–1550 BC Hittite Old Kingdom, Minoan eruption
Late Bronze Age
(1550–1200 BC)
Late Bronze Age I 1550–1400 BC Hittite Middle Kingdom, Hayasa-Azzi, Middle Elamite period, New Kingdom of Egypt
Late Bronze Age II A 1400–1300 BC Hittite New Kingdom, Mitanni, Hayasa-Azzi, Ugarit, Mycenaean Greece
Late Bronze Age II B 1300–1200 BC Middle Assyrian Empire, beginning of the high point of Phoenicians
Iron Age
(1200–539 BC)
Iron Age I
(1200–1000 BC)
Iron Age I A 1200–1150 BC Troy VII, Hekla 3 eruption, Bronze Age collapse, Sea Peoples
Iron Age I B 1150–1000 BC Neo-Hittite states, Neo Elamite period, Aramean states
Iron Age II
(1000–539 BC)
Iron Age II A 1000–900 BC Greek Dark Ages, traditional date of the United Monarchy of Israel
Iron Age II B 900–700 BC Kingdom of Israel, Urartu, Phrygia, Neo-Assyrian Empire, Kingdom of Judah, first settlement of Carthage
Iron Age II C 700–539 BC Neo-Babylonian Empire, Median Empire, fall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Phoenicia, Archaic Greece, rise of Achaemenid Persia
Classical antiquity
(post-ANE)
(539 BC – 634 AD)
Achaemenid 539–330 BC Persian Achaemenid Empire, Classical Greece
Hellenistic & Parthian 330–31 BC Macedonian Empire, Seleucid Empire, Kingdom of Pergamon, Ptolemaic Kingdom, Parthian Empire
Roman & Persian 31 BC – 634 AD Roman–Persian Wars, Roman Empire, Parthian Empire, Sassanid Empire, Byzantine Empire, Muslim conquests

Prehistory Edit

Chalcolithic Edit

Early Mesopotamia Edit

The Uruk period (c. 4000 to 3100 BC) existed from the protohistoric Chalcolithic to the Early Bronze Age period in the history of Mesopotamia, following the Ubaid period. [4] Named after the Sumerian city of Uruk, this period saw the emergence of urban life in Mesopotamia. It was followed by the Sumerian civilization. [5] The late Uruk period (34–32 centuries) saw the gradual emergence of the cuneiform script and corresponds to the Early Bronze Age.

Bronze Age Edit

Early Bronze Age Edit

Sumer and Akkad Edit

Sumer, located in southern Mesopotamia, is the earliest known civilization in the world. It lasted from the first settlement of Eridu in the Ubaid period (late 6th millennium BC) through the Uruk period (4th millennium BC) and the Dynastic periods (3rd millennium BC) until the rise of Assyria and Babylon in the late 3rd millennium BC and early 2nd millennium BC respectively. The Akkadian Empire, founded by Sargon the Great, lasted from the 24th to the 21st century BC, and was regarded by many as the world's first empire. The Akkadians eventually fragmented into Assyria and Babylonia.

Elam Edit

Ancient Elam lay to the east of Sumer and Akkad, in the far west and southwest of modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of Khuzestan and Ilam Province. In the Old Elamite period, c. 3200 BC, it consisted of kingdoms on the Iranian plateau, centered on Anshan, and from the mid-2nd millennium BC, it was centered on Susa in the Khuzestan lowlands. Elam was absorbed into the Assyrian Empire in the 9th to 7th centuries BC however, the civilization endured up until 539 BC when it was finally overrun by the Iranian Persians. The Proto-Elamite civilization existed from c. 3200 BC to 2700 BC, when Susa, the later capital of the Elamites, began to receive influence from the cultures of the Iranian plateau. In archaeological terms, this corresponds to the late Banesh period. This civilization is recognized as the oldest in Iran and was largely contemporary with its neighbour, the Sumerian civilization. The Proto-Elamite script is an Early Bronze Age writing system briefly in use for the ancient Elamite language (which was a Language isolate) before the introduction of Elamite Cuneiform.

The Amorites Edit

The Amorites were a nomadic Semitic people who occupied the country west of the Euphrates from the second half of the 3rd millennium BC. In the earliest Sumerian sources, beginning about 2400 BC, the land of the Amorites ("the Mar.tu land") is associated with the West, including Syria and Canaan, although their ultimate origin may have been Arabia. [6] They ultimately settled in Mesopotamia, ruling Isin, Larsa, and later Babylon.

Middle Bronze Age Edit

  • Assyria, after enduring a short period of Mitanni domination, emerged as a great power from the accession of Ashur-uballit I in 1365 BC to the death of Tiglath-Pileser I in 1076 BC. Assyria rivaled Egypt during this period, and dominated much of the near east.
  • Babylonia, founded as a state by Amorite tribes, found itself under the rule of Kassites for 435 years. The nation stagnated during the Kassite period, and Babylonia often found itself under Assyrian or Elamite domination. : Ugarit, Kadesh, Megiddo
  • The Hittite Empire was founded some time after 2000 BC, and existed as a major power, dominating Asia Minor and the Levant until 1200 BC, when it was first overrun by the Phrygians, and then appropriated by Assyria.

Late Bronze Age Edit

The Hurrians lived in northern Mesopotamia and areas to the immediate east and west, beginning approximately 2500 BC. They probably originated in the Caucasus and entered from the north, but this is not certain. Their known homeland was centred on Subartu, the Khabur River valley, and later they established themselves as rulers of small kingdoms throughout northern Mesopotamia and Syria. The largest and most influential Hurrian nation was the kingdom of Mitanni. The Hurrians played a substantial part in the history of the Hittites.

Ishuwa was an ancient kingdom in Anatolia. The name is first attested in the second millennium BC, and is also spelled Išuwa. In the classical period, the land was a part of Armenia. Ishuwa was one of the places where agriculture developed very early on in the Neolithic. Urban centres emerged in the upper Euphrates river valley around 3500 BC. The first states followed in the third millennium BC. The name Ishuwa is not known until the literate period of the second millennium BC. Few literate sources from within Ishuwa have been discovered and the primary source material comes from Hittite texts. To the west of Ishuwa lay the kingdom of the Hittites, and this nation was an untrustworthy neighbour. The Hittite king Hattusili I (c. 1600 BC) is reported to have marched his army across the Euphrates river and destroyed the cities there. This corresponds well with burnt destruction layers discovered by archaeologists at town sites in Ishuwa of roughly the same date. After the end of the Hittite empire in the early 12th century BC a new state emerged in Ishuwa. The city of Malatya became the centre of one of the so-called Neo-Hittite kingdom. The movement of nomadic people may have weakened the kingdom of Malatya before the final Assyrian invasion. The decline of the settlements and culture in Ishuwa from the 7th century BC until the Roman period was probably caused by this movement of people. The Armenians later settled in the area since they were natives of the Armenian Plateau and related to the earlier inhabitants of Ishuwa.

Kizzuwatna was a kingdom of the second millennium BC, situated in the highlands of southeastern Anatolia, near the Gulf of İskenderun in modern-day Turkey, encircling the Taurus Mountains and the Ceyhan river. The centre of the kingdom was the city of Kummanni, situated in the highlands. In a later era, the same region was known as Cilicia.

Luwian is an extinct language of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family. Luwian speakers gradually spread through Anatolia and became a contributing factor to the downfall, after c. 1180 BC, of the Hittite Empire, where it was already widely spoken. Luwian was also the language spoken in the Neo-Hittite states of Syria, such as Melid and Carchemish, as well as in the central Anatolian kingdom of Tabal that flourished around 900 BC. Luwian has been preserved in two forms, named after the writing systems used to represent them: Cuneiform Luwian, and Hieroglyphic Luwian.

Mari was an ancient Sumerian and Amorite city, located 11 kilometres north-west of the modern town of Abu Kamal on the western bank of Euphrates river, some 120 km southeast of Deir ez-Zor, Syria. It is thought to have been inhabited since the 5th millennium BC, although it flourished from 2900 BC until 1759 BC, when it was sacked by Hammurabi.

Mitanni was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from c. 1500 BC, at the height of its power, during the 14th century BC, encompassing what is today southeastern Turkey, northern Syria and northern Iraq (roughly corresponding to Kurdistan), centred on the capital Washukanni whose precise location has not yet been determined by archaeologists. The Mitanni kingdom is thought to have been a feudal state led by a warrior nobility of Indo-Aryan descent, who invaded the Levant region at some point during the 17th century BC, their influence apparent in a linguistic superstratum in Mitanni records. The spread to Syria of a distinct pottery type associated with the Kura-Araxes culture has been connected with this movement, although its date is somewhat too early. [7] Yamhad was an ancient Amorite kingdom. A substantial Hurrian population also settled in the kingdom, and the Hurrian culture influenced the area. The kingdom was powerful during the Middle Bronze Age, c. 1800–1600 BC. Its biggest rival was Qatna further south. Yamhad was finally destroyed by the Hittites in the 16th century BC.

The Aramaeans were a Semitic (West Semitic language group), semi-nomadic and pastoralist people who had lived in upper Mesopotamia and Syria. Aramaeans have never had a unified empire they were divided into independent kingdoms all across the Near East. Yet to these Aramaeans befell the privilege of imposing their language and culture upon the entire Near East and beyond, fostered in part by the mass relocations enacted by successive empires, including the Assyrians and Babylonians. Scholars even have used the term 'Aramaization' for the Assyro-Babylonian peoples' languages and cultures, that have become Aramaic-speaking. [8]

The Sea peoples is the term used for a confederacy of seafaring raiders of the second millennium BC who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, caused political unrest, and attempted to enter or control Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially during Year 8 of Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty. [9] The Egyptian Pharaoh Merneptah explicitly refers to them by the term "the foreign-countries (or 'peoples') [10] of the sea" [11] [12] in his Great Karnak Inscription. [13] Although some scholars believe that they "invaded" Cyprus, Hatti and the Levant, this hypothesis is disputed. [14]

Bronze Age collapse Edit

The Bronze Age collapse is the name given by those historians who see the transition from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age as violent, sudden and culturally disruptive, expressed by the collapse of palace economies of the Aegean and Anatolia, which were replaced after a hiatus by the isolated village cultures of the Dark Age period in history of the ancient Middle East. Some have gone so far as to call the catalyst that ended the Bronze Age a "catastrophe". [15] The Bronze Age collapse may be seen in the context of a technological history that saw the slow, comparatively continuous spread of iron-working technology in the region, beginning with precocious iron-working in what is now Romania in the 13th and 12th centuries. [16] The cultural collapse of the Mycenaean kingdoms, the Hittite Empire in Anatolia and Syria, and the Egyptian Empire in Syria and Palestine, the scission of long-distance trade contacts and sudden eclipse of literacy occurred between 1206 and 1150 BC. In the first phase of this period, almost every city between Troy and Gaza was violently destroyed, and often left unoccupied thereafter (for example, Hattusas, Mycenae, Ugarit). The gradual end of the Dark Age that ensued saw the rise of settled Neo-Hittite and Aramaean kingdoms of the mid-10th century BC, and the rise of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.

Iron Age Edit

Aegean (1200–700 BC) Italy (1100–700 BC) Balkans (1100 BC – 150 AD) Eastern Europe (900–650 BC) Central Europe (800–50 BC) Great Britain (800 BC – 100 AD) Northern Europe (500 BC – 800 AD)

During the Early Iron Age, from 911 BC, the Neo-Assyrian Empire arose, vying with Babylonia and other lesser powers for dominance of the region, though not until the reforms of Tiglath-Pileser III in the 8th century BC, [17] [18] did it become a powerful and vast empire. In the Middle Assyrian period of the Late Bronze Age, Assyria had been a kingdom of northern Mesopotamia (modern-day northern Iraq), competing for dominance with its southern Mesopotamian rival Babylonia. From 1365–1076 it had been a major imperial power, rivaling Egypt and the Hittite Empire. Beginning with the campaign of Adad-nirari II, it became a vast empire, overthrowing 25th dynasty Egypt and conquering Egypt, the Middle East, and large swaths of Asia Minor, ancient Iran, the Caucasus and east Mediterranean. The Neo-Assyrian Empire succeeded the Middle Assyrian period (14th to 10th century BC). Some scholars, such as Richard Nelson Frye, regard the Neo-Assyrian Empire to be the first real empire in human history. [19] During this period, Aramaic was also made an official language of the empire, alongside the Akkadian language. [19]

The states of the Neo-Hittite kingdoms were Luwian, Aramaic and Phoenician-speaking political entities of Iron Age northern Syria and southern Anatolia that arose following the collapse of the Hittite Empire around 1180 BC and lasted until roughly 700 BC. The term "Neo-Hittite" is sometimes reserved specifically for the Luwian-speaking principalities like Melid (Malatya) and Karkamish (Carchemish), although in a wider sense the broader cultural term "Syro-Hittite" is now applied to all the entities that arose in south-central Anatolia following the Hittite collapse – such as Tabal and Quwê – as well as those of northern and coastal Syria. [20] [21]

Urartu was an ancient kingdom of Armenia and North Mesopotamia [22] which existed from c. 860 BC, emerging from the Late Bronze Age until 585 BC. The Kingdom of Urartu was located in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, the Iranian Plateau, Mesopotamia, and the Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered on Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). The name corresponds to the Biblical Ararat.

The term Neo-Babylonian Empire refers to Babylonia under the rule of the 11th ("Chaldean") dynasty, from the revolt of Nabopolassar in 623 BC until the invasion of Cyrus the Great in 539 BC (Although the last ruler of Babylonia (Nabonidus) was in fact from the Assyrian city of Harran and not Chaldean), notably including the reign of Nebuchadrezzar II. Through the centuries of Assyrian domination, Babylonia enjoyed a prominent status, and revolted at the slightest indication that it did not. However, the Assyrians always managed to restore Babylonian loyalty, whether through the granting of increased privileges, or militarily. That finally changed in 627 BC with the death of the last strong Assyrian ruler, Ashurbanipal, and Babylonia rebelled under Nabopolassar the Chaldean a few years later. In alliance with the Medes and Scythians, Nineveh was sacked in 612 and Harran in 608 BC, and the seat of empire was again transferred to Babylonia. Subsequently, the Medes controlled much of the ancient Near East from their base in Ecbatana (modern-day Hamadan, Iran), most notably most of what is now Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and the South Caucasus.

Following the fall of the Medes, the Achaemenid Empire was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over most of the Near East and far beyond, and the second great Iranian empire (after the Median Empire). At the height of its power, encompassing approximately 7.5 million square kilometers, the Achaemenid Empire was territorially the largest empire of classical antiquity, and the first world empire. It spanned three continents (Europe, Asia, and Africa), including apart from its core in modern-day Iran, the territories of modern Iraq, the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan, Abkhazia), Asia Minor (Turkey), Thrace, Bulgaria, Greece, many of the Black Sea coastal regions, northern Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Afghanistan, Central Asia, parts of Pakistan, and all significant population centers of ancient Egypt as far west as Libya. [ citation needed ] It is noted in western history as the foe of the Greek city states in the Greco-Persian Wars, for freeing the Israelites from their Babylonian captivity, and for instituting Aramaic as the empire's official language.

Ancient civilizations in the Near East were deeply influenced by their spiritual beliefs, which generally did not distinguish between heaven and Earth. [23] They believed that divine action influenced all mundane matters, and also believed in divination (ability to predict the future). [23] Omens were often inscribed in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, as were records of major events. [23]


Hayasa-Azzi Timeline - History

亞美尼亞共和國(亞美尼亞語: Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն ,羅馬化:Hayastani Hanrapetutyun),通稱亞美尼亞,是一個位於西亞外高加索地區的共和制國家,有時也會被視為是東歐的一部分 [4] [5] [6] 。行政疆界上,亞美尼亞位於黑海與裏海之間,屬內陸國家,西鄰土耳其,北鄰格魯吉亞,東為阿塞拜疆,南接伊朗和阿塞拜疆的飛地納希切萬自治共和國,以埃里溫為首都。亞美尼亞曾經是蘇聯的加盟共和國之一,1991年蘇聯解體時獨立。在亞美尼亞語中,亞美尼亞被稱為「哈亞斯坦」(亞美尼亞語: Հայաստան ,ISO 9985轉寫:Hayastan)。

在4世紀早期(公元301年),亞美尼亞是世界上第一個將基督教視為官方宗教的國家 [7] [8] 。因此,亞美尼亞經常被指為「第一個基督教國家」 [9] [10] [註 1] 。絕大部分國民信奉基督教的東方正統教會(與衣索比亞和埃及的科普特正教會同宗,非東正教),但因為周圍被伊斯蘭國家所包圍著,再加上與鄰國之間的國界爭議問題,成為高加索地區動盪不安的火藥庫地帶。

680年波斯被阿拉伯所滅,阿拉伯人入侵亞美尼亞,阿拉伯人強迫亞美尼亞人改信伊斯蘭教,但沒有成功;885年 阿碩特一世 ( 英語 : Ashot I ) 又重新建立了亞美尼亞王國巴格拉提德王朝。西元1000年左右,亞美尼亞再次被塞爾柱土耳其和拜占庭帝國所夾擊;1064年,亞美尼亞被拜占庭所征服,巴格拉東王朝滅亡,亞美尼亞貴族被迫遷移到地中海東岸的奇里乞亞(又稱小亞美尼亞或西亞美尼亞)建立 盧西尼王朝 ( 英語 : House of Lusignan ) 。西元1071年,拜占庭的統治結束,塞爾柱土耳其開始統治亞美尼亞,其後亞美尼亞被喬治亞王國佔領,亞美尼亞人視喬治亞人為解放者。1220年左右以後,亞美尼亞作為喬治亞的一部份被西侵的蒙古帝國佔領,並在1260年被繼承的伊兒汗國統治。

至於奇里乞亞亞美尼亞則與蒙古伊兒汗國保持著友好關係,也對十字軍友好並提供援助。西元1375年,阿拉伯為了徹底阻止十字軍的騷擾,因此將西亞美尼亞王國征服。1393年,最後一位西亞美尼亞國王盧西尼的 萊翁六世 ( 英語 : Leo V, King of Armenia ) 在法國巴黎去世,這也代表盧比尼王朝的正式結束。

1454年,在拜占庭被奧斯曼土耳其人征服後不久,亞美尼亞也失去了它的最後一點的主權。15世紀中葉,亞美尼亞被奧斯曼帝國吞併。地域廣闊的西亞美尼亞地區長期處在土耳其人的統治下,信仰基督教的亞美尼亞人則長期淪為二等公民齊米,並不斷遭到土耳其帝國當局的迫害。 16世紀初,今阿塞拜疆(當時稱希爾凡)領土被伊朗薩法維王朝占領 [11] 。16世紀中葉以後,土耳其人與伊朗人多次爆發戰爭,在外高加索形成了東西對峙的局面,土耳其占領着西格魯吉亞和西亞美尼亞,並兩度攻占阿塞拜疆;伊朗占領着東格魯吉亞、東亞美尼亞和全部的阿塞拜疆。1828年,東亞美尼亞被沙俄從波斯手中奪取,許多亞美尼亞人因此遷至東亞美尼亞 [11] [12] 。

現代 編輯

一級行政區分為10個省(英: marz ;亞美尼亞語: մարզ )及一個直轄市——葉里溫。

亞美尼亞節日
日期 名稱 由來
1月1日 新年 西曆新年
12月25日 聖誕節 基督教節日,紀念耶穌誕生
4月24日 亞美尼亞種族大屠殺紀念日 紀念1915年土耳其奧斯曼帝國對亞美尼亞人實施種族滅絕
5月28日 第一共和國成立日 紀念1918年第一共和國成立
7月5日 憲法日 紀念1995年7月5日亞全民公決通過新憲法
9月21日 亞美尼亞共和國獨立日 紀念1991年9月21日亞全民公決,正式宣布獨立
12月7日 悼念1988年大地震死難者日 紀念1988年大地震的死難者

教育 編輯

體育 編輯

媒體 編輯

發射台 編輯

城市 編輯

健康 編輯

2006年的出生時預期壽命男性和女性分別為70歲和76歲 [19] 。2004年,衛生支出約占國內生產總值的5.6% [19] ,其中大部分除去私人部門 [19] 。2006年,人均政府健康開支為每人112美元 [20] 。

人口統計 編輯

僑民 編輯

由於發生在20世紀初期奧斯曼帝國時,土耳其實施的亞美尼亞種族大屠殺導致亞美尼亞人在奧斯曼帝國境內的眾多人口大減,許多亞美尼亞人逃亡到世界各地,因此亞美尼亞發展出了龐大的海外社區。亞美尼亞的僑民比較多(預計有800萬人,大大超過該國本身的300萬人口),如今他們在世界各地有很多移民團體。最大的海外亞美尼亞人社區位於俄羅斯、法國、伊朗、美國、格魯吉亞、敘利亞、黎巴嫩、阿根廷、澳大利亞、加拿大、希臘、塞浦路斯、以色列、波蘭和烏克蘭。有4萬至7萬名亞美尼亞人在土耳其居住,主要集中在伊斯坦布爾及周邊地區 [21] 。 此外,約有1000名亞美尼亞人居住在耶路撒冷老城亞美尼亞區,那裡有曾經是大型社區的遺址 [22] 。位於意大利威尼斯潟湖的島嶼聖·拉扎羅·得利·阿爾梅尼,被亞美尼亞天主教會一修道院Mechitarists完全占領 [23] 。此外,約13.9萬名亞美尼亞人生活在納戈爾諾-卡拉巴赫共和國,是那裡的第一大民族 [24] 。19世紀末至20世紀上半葉,也有不少亞美尼亞人移民中國,這些移民絕大部分於20世紀五六十年代離開中國。

族群 編輯

語言 編輯

宗教 編輯

  1. ^ De jure population estimate by the National Statistics Service (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)
  2. ^ 2.02.12.22.3Armenia. World Economic Outlook Database. International Monetary Fund (IMF). April 2016 [ 2016-06-15 ] . (原始內容存檔於2020-06-18).
  3. ^Human Development Report 2019 (PDF) . UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME. [ 2019-12-22 ] . (原始內容 (PDF) 存檔於2020-01-18).
  4. ^ The UNclassification of world regions (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館) places Armenia in Western Asia the CIAWorld FactbookArmenia. The World Factbook. CIA. [ 2010-09-02 ] . (原始內容存檔於2010-10-10).
  5. ^Armenia. 國家地理. [ 2014-07-14 ] . (原始內容存檔於2007-08-08).
  6. ^Armenia. 大英百科全書. [ 2014-07-14 ] . (原始內容存檔於2009-04-01).
  7. ^ ( Garsoïan, Nina. R.G. Hovannisian , 編. Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times. Volume 1. Palgrave Macmillan. 1997: 81. )
  8. ^ Grousset, René. Histoire de l'Arménie 1984. Payot. 1947: 122. . Estimated dates vary from 284 to 314. Garsoïan (op.cit. p.82), following the research of Ananian, favours the latter.
  9. ^ Stringer, Martin D. A Sociological History of Christian Worship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2005: 92. ISBN 0521819555.
  10. ^Armenia Facts. National Geographic. [ 2013-10-12 ] . (原始內容存檔於2017-06-20).
  11. ^ 11.011.1Mikaberidze, Alexander. Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. 2011: 33, 351 [ 2016-11-28 ] . ISBN 978-1-59884-337-8. (原始內容存檔於2017-02-05).
  12. ^ 12.012.1 Dowling, Timothy C. Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. 2014: 728– [ 2016-11-28 ] . ISBN 978-1-59884-948-6. (原始內容存檔於2017-02-08).
  13. ^ГЕНОЦИД АРМЯН (1915-1916 ГОДЫ): ПОДРОБНЫЕ СВЕДЕНИЯ. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. [ 2020-10-03 ] . (原始內容存檔於2021-01-03) (俄語) .
  14. ^Государство между Европой и Азией Источник. Планета Земля. [ 2020-10-03 ] . (原始內容存檔於2020-10-29).
  15. ^ Harutyunyan, Arpi. Still Recovering: A visit to the 1988 "center of the epicenter " . ArmeniaNow. 7 December 2007 [ 7 March 2014] . (原始內容存檔於2020-07-10).
  16. ^Opinion: «Armenia can block the cooperation between Pakistan and the EEU». Rusarminfo. [ 2021-03-26 ] (ru-RU) . 引文格式1維護:未識別語文類型 (link)
  17. ^Armstat 2011 estimates
  18. ^Armstat 2011 census, population of Yerevan
  19. ^ 19.019.119.2Microsoft Word - cjl - ARM_MPSEURO_countryprofile.doc (PDF) . [ 2010-01-25 ] . (原始內容 (PDF) 存檔於2009-11-16).
  20. ^Human Development Report 2009 – Armenia. Hdrstats.undp.org. [ 2010-01-25 ] . (原始內容存檔於2010-01-09).
  21. ^ Turay, Anna. Tarihte Ermeniler. Bolsohays:Istanbul Armenians Like many other ethnicities Armenians in India too have played a role historically and had an impact historically. Today however the community has been reduced to about a hundred living in Kolkata. [ 2007-01-04 ] . (原始內容存檔於2008-02-09).
  22. ^Jerusalem – The Old City: The Armenian Quarter. Jewish Virtual Library. [ 2009-07-22 ] . (原始內容存檔於2008-11-21).
  23. ^San Lazzaro degli Armeni – Venice for Visitors. Europeforvisitors.com. [ 2010-12-30 ] . (原始內容存檔於2010-11-22).
  24. ^Population in Nagorno-Karabakh 2007 (PDF) . National Statistical Service of Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. [ 2009-07-22 ] . (原始內容 (PDF) 存檔於2010-04-16).
  25. ^" 戰輸"反怪印度賣武器? 亞美尼亞慘輸亞塞拜然竟向要求印度政府賠償! 印度淪"雙亞戰爭"另類輸家. YouTube. 三立iNEWS.

180 ms 10.5% Scribunto_LuaSandboxCallback::getExpandedArgument 140 ms 8.1% Scribunto_LuaSandboxCallback::find 80 ms 4.7% Scribunto_LuaSandboxCallback::getExpensiveData 80 ms 4.7% Scribunto_LuaSandboxCallback::callParserFunction 60 ms 3.5% Scribunto_LuaSandboxCallback::getEntity 60 ms 3.5% key_to_lower 40 ms 2.3% Scribunto_LuaSandboxCallback::getEntityStatements 40 ms 2.3% 40 ms 2.3% [others] 280 ms 16.3% Number of Wikibase entities loaded: 1/400 -->


Bagratids in Armenia

The Bagratid Princes of Armenia are known as early as 1st century BC when they served under the Artaxiad Dynasty. Unlike most noble families of Armenia they held only strips of land, as opposed to the Mamikonians, who held a unified land territory. These are the earliest Bagratid princes in Armenia prior to the establishment of the kingdom, as mentioned by the Union of Armenian Noblemen. Ashot I was the first Bagratid King, the founder of the Royal dynasty. He was recognized as prince of princes by the court at Baghdad in 861, which provoked war with local Arab emirs. Ashot won the war, and was recognized as King of the Armenians by Baghdad in 885. Recognition from Constantinople followed in 886. In an effort to unify the Armenian nation under one flag, the Bagratids subjugated other Armenian noble families through conquests and fragile marriage alliances. Eventually, some noble families such as the Artsrunis and the Siunis broke off from the central Bagratid authority. [3] Ashot III the Merciful transferred their capital to the city of Ani, now famous for its ruins. They kept power by playing off the competition between the Byzantine Empire and the Arabs.

They assumed the Persian-influenced titles of the King of Kings. However, with the start of the 10th century and on, the Bagratunis broke up into different branches, breaking up the unified kingdom in a time when unity was needed in the face of Seljuk and Byzantine pressure. The rule of the Ani branch ended in 1045 with the conquest of Ani by the Byzantines.

The Kars branch held on until 1064. The dynasty of Cilician Armenia is believed to be a branch of the Bagratids, later took the throne of an Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia. The founder, Ruben I, had an unknown relationship to the exiled king Gagik II. He was either a younger family member or kinsman. Ashot, son of Hovhannes (son of Gagik II), was later governor of Ani under the Shaddadid dynasty.


അർമേനിയൻ ഭാഷ

അർമേനിയൻ ജനത സംസാരിക്കുന്ന ഇന്തോ യൂറോപ്യൻ ഭാഷാവിഭാഗത്തിൽ പെടുന്ന ഭാഷയാണ് അർമേനിയൻ ഭാഷ ( հայերեն [hɑjɛˈɾɛn] hayeren). അർമേനിയയിലെയും സ്വയം പ്രഖ്യാപിത നഗോർണോ കാരബാഖ് റിപ്പബ്ലിക്കിലെയും ഔദ്യോഗിക ഭാഷയാണിത്. അർമേനിയൻ പർവതപ്രദേശങ്ങളിൽ ഈ ഭാഷ കാലങ്ങളായി സംസാരിക്കപ്പെട്ടിരുന്നു. അർമേനിയൻ ഡയ്സ്പെറയും ഈ ഭാഷ സംസാരിക്കുന്നുണ്ട്. ഇന്തോ യൂറോപ്യൻ കുടുംബത്തിനകത്തുള്ള വ്യതിരിക്തമായ ശബ്ദവികാസം കാരണം ഇത് ഭാഷാശാസ്ത്രജ്ഞരുടെ ശ്രദ്ധയാകർഷി‌ച്ചിട്ടുണ്ട്.

Georgia (സംട്സ്ഖേ-ജവാഖെടി) (പ്രായോഗികതലത്തിൽ) [a]
Lebanon [b]
United States (കാലിഫോർണിയ) (പ്രായോഗികതലത്തിൽ) [c]
Ukraine [13]
Iraq [14]
Cyprus [15]
Hungary [16]
Poland [17]
Romania [18]

അർമേനിയൻ ഭാഷയ്ക്ക് സ്വന്തമായ ലിപിയുണ്ട്. എ.ഡി. 405–6 കാലത്ത് മെസ്രോപ് മഷ്ടോട്സ് എന്ന ഭാഷാശാസ്ത്രജ്ഞനായ പാതിരിയാണ് ഇതിന് രൂപം കൊടുത്തത്.

ഇന്തോ യൂറോപ്യൻ കുടുംബത്തിലെ ഒരു സ്വതന്ത്ര ശാഖയായാണ് ഭാഷാശാസ്ത്രജ്ഞർ അർമേനിയൻ ഭാഷയെ കണക്കാക്കുന്നത്. [20]

ബി.സി. രണ്ടാം നൂറ്റാണ്ടോടെ തന്നെ അർമേനിയ ഒരു ഭാഷ മാത്രം സംസാരിക്കുന്ന രാജ്യമായി മാറിയിരുന്നു. [21] നിലവിലുള്ള ഏറ്റവും പഴയ ഗ്രന്ഥം അഞ്ചാം നൂറ്റാണ്ടിലെ ഒരു ബൈബിൾ പരിഭാഷയാണ്. പടിഞ്ഞാറൻ മിഡിൽ ഇറാനിയൻ ഭാഷകൾ (പ്രത്യേകിച്ച് പാർത്ഥിയൻ) അർമേനിയൻ ഭാഷയിലേയ്ക്ക് ധാരാളം വാക്കുകൾ സംഭാവന ചെയ്തിട്ടുണ്ട്. ഗ്രീക്ക്, ലാറ്റിൻ, ഓൾഡ് ഫ്രഞ്ച്, പേർഷ്യൻ, അറബിക്, ടർക്കിഷ് തുടങ്ങിയ ഭാഷകളിൽ നിന്നും ചരിത്രത്തിൽ പല ഘട്ടങ്ങളിലായി അർമേനിയൻ ഭാഷ വാക്കുകൾ കടം കൊണ്ടിട്ടുണ്ട്. കിഴക്കൻ അർമേനിയൻ, പടിഞ്ഞാറൻ അർമേനിയൻ എന്നിങ്ങനെ രണ്ട് വ്യത്യസ്ത രൂപങ്ങൾ ഈ ഭാഷയ്ക്കുണ്ട്. പ്രാദേശിക ഭേദങ്ങൾ മിക്കവയും മറ്റുള്ളവർക്കും മനസ്സിലാക്കാനെളുപ്പമായവയാണ്.

അന്യം നിന്നുപോയ ലൊമാവ്രൻ ഭാഷ റോമാനി ഭാഷാസ്വാധീനമുള്ളതും (വാക്കുകൾ മിക്കതും റോമാനിയിൽ നിന്ന് കടം കൊണ്ടവയാണ്) അർമേനിയൻ വ്യാകരണം ഉപയോഗിക്കുന്നതുമായ ഒരു വകഭേദമാണ്.


Watch the video: Map of the last moment of Azerbaijan on the Armenian front line


Comments:

  1. Cus

    Great, this is valuable information.

  2. Jeffery

    You are making a mistake. Let's discuss this. Email me at PM.

  3. Atworth

    I got really hot

  4. Igorr

    and here there are really cool ones

  5. Turn

    I can recommend a visit to the site, where there are many articles on the subject.



Write a message